Tumor Biology

, Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 353–364 | Cite as

Hepatoma-derived growth factor: a novel prognostic biomarker in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

  • Sen Guo
  • Hong-da Liu
  • Yan-feng Liu
  • Lei Liu
  • Qiang Sun
  • Xi-jun Cui
Research Article


Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is an acidic heparin-binding protein involved in tumor progression and poor prognosis of kinds of cancers. Aimed at investigating the functions of HDGF in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCC), we detected the expression of HDGF by immunohistochemistry in 83 patients. Associations of HDGF with clinicopathologic features, microvascular density (MVD), and overall survival rates were further analyzed by Chi-square method, univariate or multivariate analysis. HDGF functions in IHCC proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis were detected by MTT, transwell, and tube formation assays, respectively. As a result, we found that HDGF-positive expression rate in IHCC was 51.8 % (43/83) in IHCC. HDGF expression was significantly correlated to MVD (P = 0.031), lymphatic invasion (P = 0.030), distant metastasis (P = 0.002), and TNM stage (P = 0.037). HDGF was further identified as an independent prognostic factor in IHCC with Kaplan-Meier method (P = 0.003) and Cox-regression model (P = 0.008). Moreover, both intracellular and extracellular HDGF were proved to promote the proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis of IHCC cell lines. In conclusion, HDGF was identified as an independent prognostic biomarker in IHCC. HDGF can promote IHCC cells progression, including proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis, indicating HDGF could become a new promising and potential drug target of IHCC.


Hepatoma-derived growth factor Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma Prognosis Tumor progression Angiogenesis 



This study is funded by the Outstanding Young Scientist Award Fund supported by Shandong Province (no. BS2012YY021).

Conflicts of interest



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Copyright information

© International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sen Guo
    • 1
    • 5
  • Hong-da Liu
    • 1
  • Yan-feng Liu
    • 1
  • Lei Liu
    • 2
  • Qiang Sun
    • 3
  • Xi-jun Cui
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of General SurgeryQilu Hospital of Shandong UniversityJinanChina
  2. 2.Department of General SurgeryPeople Hospital of HantingWeifang CityChina
  3. 3.Department of SurgeryBinhai Branch of Weifang Hospital of Traditional Chinese MedicineWeifang CityChina
  4. 4.Department of General SurgeryWendeng Central HospitalWeihai CityChina
  5. 5.Department of Hepatobiliary SurgeryQilu Hospital of Shandong UniversityJinanChina

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