Tumor Biology

, Volume 36, Issue 2, pp 1155–1162 | Cite as

Evaluation of transforming growth factor-β1 suppress Pokemon/epithelial–mesenchymal transition expression in human bladder cancer cells

  • Wei Li
  • Amritha Kidiyoor
  • Yangyang Hu
  • Changcheng Guo
  • Min Liu
  • Xudong Yao
  • Yuanyuan Zhang
  • Bo Peng
  • Junhua Zheng
Research Article

Abstract

Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays a dual role in apoptosis and in proapoptotic responses in the support of survival in a variety of cells. The aim of this study was to determine the function of TGF-β1 in bladder cancer cells and the relationship with POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (Pokemon). TGF-β1 and its receptors mediate several tumorigenic cascades that regulate cell proliferation, migration, and survival of bladder cancer cells. Bladder cancer cells T24 were treated with different levels of TGF-β1. Levels of Pokemon, E-cadherin, Snail, MMP2, MMP9, Twist, VEGF, and β-catenin messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were examined by real-time quantitative fluorescent PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. The effects of TGF-β1 on epithelial–mesenchymal transition of T24 cells were evaluated with wound-healing assay, proliferation of T24 was evaluated with reference to growth curves with MTT assay, and cell invasive ability was investigated by Transwell assay. Data show that Pokemon was inhibited by TGF-β1 treatment; the gene and protein of E-cadherin and β-catenin expression level showed decreased markedly after TGF-β1 treatment (P < 0.05). While the bladder cancer cell after TGF-β1 treatment showed a significantly reduced wound-closing efficiency at 6, 12, and 24 h, mechanistic analyses demonstrated that different levels of TGF-β1 promotes tumor cell growth, migration, and invasion in bladder cancer cells (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively). In summary, our findings suggest that TGF-β1 may inhibit the expression of Pokemon, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. The high expression of TGF-β1 leads to an increase in the phenotype and apical-base polarity of epithelial cells. These changes of cells may result in the recurrence and progression of bladder cancer at last. Related mechanism is worthy of further investigation.

Keywords

Bladder cancer Transforming growth factor-β1 Pokemon Epithelial–mesenchymal transition T24 cells 

Notes

Conflicts of interest

This work was supported in part or in whole by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31100702/ C100307) and Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education in China (Grant No. 20110072120054). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. No additional external funding was received for this study.

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Copyright information

© International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wei Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Amritha Kidiyoor
    • 2
  • Yangyang Hu
    • 1
  • Changcheng Guo
    • 1
  • Min Liu
    • 1
  • Xudong Yao
    • 1
  • Yuanyuan Zhang
    • 2
  • Bo Peng
    • 1
  • Junhua Zheng
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Urology, Shanghai Tenth People’s HospitalTongji University School of MedicineShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Institute for Regenerative MedicineWake Forest UniversityWinston-SalemUSA

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