Tumor Biology

, Volume 35, Issue 11, pp 11171–11181 | Cite as

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk in Punjabi population from North West India

  • Ruhi Kapahi
  • Kamlesh Guleria
  • Vasudha Sambyal
  • Mridu Manjari
  • Meena Sudan
  • Manjit Singh Uppal
  • Neeti Rajan Singh
Research Article


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of seven VEGF promoter polymorphisms with breast cancer risk in Punjabi population from North West India. We screened DNA samples of 102 sporadic breast cancer patients and 102 unrelated healthy, gender, and age-matched individuals for seven VEGF promoter polymorphisms [−417C/T (rs833062), −172C/A (rs59260042), −165C/T (rs79469752), −160C/T, −152G/A (rs13207351), −141A/C (rs28357093) and −116G/A (rs1570360)] by direct sequencing. The frequency of GG, GA, and AA genotype of −152G/A polymorphism was 26.47 vs 38.34 %, 46.08 vs 51.96 %, and 27.45 vs 9.80 %, in patients and controls, respectively. VEGF −152 AA genotype was significantly associated with increased risk for breast cancer (OR = 4.04, 95 %CI, 1.69–9.68, p = 0.001; recessive model OR = 3.48, 95 %CI, 1.59–7.63, p = 0.001). For VEGF −116G/A polymorphism, G and A allele frequencies were 65.2 vs 76.47 % and 34.8 vs 23.53 % in patients and controls, respectively. Individuals having −116AA genotype (OR = 3.40; 95 %CI, 1.24–9.37; p = 0.014) and A allele (OR = 1.73; 95 %CI, 1.12–2.67; p = 0.012) were associated with increased risk for breast cancer. VEGF −165C/T and −141A/C polymorphisms were associated with reduced risk for breast cancer. There was significantly decreased frequency of CT genotype (4.90 vs 18.63 %; p = 0.002) and T allele (2.45 vs 9.31 %; p = 0.003) of −165C/T polymorphism among breast cancer patients as compared to controls. VEGF −141A and C allele frequency were 96.57 vs 91.18 % and 3.43 vs 8.82 % in patients and controls, respectively. Significant reduced risk for breast cancer was observed with AC genotype (OR = 0.34, 95 %CI, 0.14–0.86; p = 0.019) and C allele (OR = 0.37; 95 %CI, 0.15–0.89; p = 0.023) of −141A/C polymorphism. We did not observe association of VEGF −417T/C, −172C/A, −160C/T polymorphisms with breast cancer risk in the studied subjects (p > 0.05). The VEGF −152G/A and −116G/A polymorphisms were found to be significantly associated with increased risk for breast cancer while −165C/T and −141A/C polymorphisms were found to be associated with decreased risk for breast cancer in Punjabi population from North West India.


Breast cancer VEGF Polymorphism Angiogenesis 



Vascular endothelial growth factor


Untranslated region


Single nucleotide polymorphism


Polymerase chain reaction


Restriction fragment length polymorphism


Standard deviation


Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium


Odds ratio


Confidence interval


Body mass index


Waist to hip ratio


Waist to stature ratio



The present study was supported by the DBT grant BT/PR 13252/GBD/27/236/2009 sanctioned to KG and VS. Research fellowship (No.3/1/3/JRF-2012/HRD) to RK from ICMR is duly acknowledged. We are thankful to Dr. Geeta Sharma, Principal, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Vallah, Amritsar, Punjab for their help in providing access to patients and facilities for execution of research work.

Conflicts of interest



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Copyright information

© International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ruhi Kapahi
    • 1
  • Kamlesh Guleria
    • 1
  • Vasudha Sambyal
    • 1
  • Mridu Manjari
    • 2
  • Meena Sudan
    • 3
  • Manjit Singh Uppal
    • 4
  • Neeti Rajan Singh
    • 4
  1. 1.Human Cytogenetics Laboratory, Department of Human GeneticsGuru Nanak Dev UniversityAmritsarIndia
  2. 2.Department of PathologySri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and ResearchAmritsarIndia
  3. 3.Department of RadiotherapySri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and ResearchAmritsarIndia
  4. 4.Department of SurgerySri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and ResearchAmritsarIndia

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