Tumor Biology

, Volume 35, Issue 10, pp 10515–10522 | Cite as

RETRACTED ARTICLE: Relationship of serum MMP-7 levels for colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis

  • Xiao-Jing Xing
  • Xiao-Hu Gu
  • Tian-Fei Ma
Research Article


This meta-analysis aimed to identify the value of serum matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) levels for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Through searching the following electronic databases: Cochrane Library (Issue 12, 2014), Web of Science (1945∼2014), PubMed (1966∼2014), CINAHL (1982∼2014), EMBASE (1980∼2014), and CBM (1982∼2014), related articles were determined without any language restrictions. Stata statistical software (Version 12.0, Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA) was chosen to deal with statistical data. Standard mean difference (SMD) and its corresponding 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) were calculated to clarify the correlation between serum MMP-7 levels and CRC. Seven clinical case–control studies which recruited 430 CRC patients and 357 healthy subjects were selected for statistical analysis. The main findings of our meta-analysis showed that the serum MMP-7 level in CRC patients was significantly higher than that in control subjects (SMD = 2.15, 95 % CI = 1.46∼2.84, P < 0.001). Ethnicity-stratified analysis indicated a higher serum MMP-7 level in CRC patients than that of control subjects among the Asians and the Caucasians (Asians: SMD = 2.83, 95 % CI = 1.76∼3.91, P < 0.001; Caucasians: SMD = 1.06, 95 % CI = 0.46∼1.66, P = 0.001; respectively). The present meta-analysis indicated that the increased serum level of MMP-7 may be connected with the development of CRC; thus, serum levels of MMP-7 could be an independent biomarker for CRC patients.


MMP-7 Colorectal cancer Meta-analysis 



This study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81201968), Natural Science Foundation of Liaoning Province (201102111), and Doctoral Starting Foundation of Liaoning Province (20091045). We would like to acknowledge the reviewers for their helpful comments on this paper.

Conflicts of interest



  1. 1.
    Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, Ferlay J, Ward E, Forman D. Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin. 2011;61:69–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Meyer JE, Narang T, Schnoll-Sussman FH, Pochapin MB, Christos PJ, Sherr DL. Increasing incidence of rectal cancer in patients aged younger than 40 years: an analysis of the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results database. Cancer. 2010;116:4354–9.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, Forman D, Mathers C, Parkin DM. Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. Int J Cancer. 2010;127:2893–917.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Spiller RC, Thompson WG. Bowel disorders. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010;105:775–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Haggar FA, Boushey RP. Colorectal cancer epidemiology: incidence, mortality, survival, and risk factors. Clin Colon Rectal Surg. 2009;22:191–7.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mlecnik B, Tosolini M, Charoentong P, Kirilovsky A, Bindea G, Berger A, et al. Biomolecular network reconstruction identifies T-cell homing factors associated with survival in colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology. 2010;138:1429–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ogino S, Stampfer M. Lifestyle factors and microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer: the evolving field of molecular pathological epidemiology. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2010;102:365–7.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Huxley RR, Ansary-Moghaddam A, Clifton P, Czernichow S, Parr CL, Woodward M. The impact of dietary and lifestyle risk factors on risk of colorectal cancer: a quantitative overview of the epidemiological evidence. Int J Cancer. 2009;125:171–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lin MC, Wang FY, Kuo YH, Tang FY. Cancer chemopreventive effects of lycopene: suppression of MMP-7 expression and cell invasion in human colon cancer cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:11304–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Koskensalo S, Louhimo J, Nordling S, Hagstrom J, Haglund C. MMP-7 as a prognostic marker in colorectal cancer. Tumour Biol. 2011;32:259–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Samukange V, Yasukawa K, Inouye K. Interaction of 8-anilinonaphthalene 1-sulphonate (ANS) and human matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP-7) as examined by MMP-7 activity and ANS fluorescence. J Biochem. 2012;151:533–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Takeharu H, Yasukawa K, Inouye K. Thermodynamic analysis of ionizable groups involved in the catalytic mechanism of human matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP-7). Biochim Biophys Acta. 1814;2011:1940–6.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bauvois B. New facets of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 as cell surface transducers: outside-in signaling and relationship to tumor progression. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1825;2012:29–36.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yang B, Gao J, Rao Z, Zhang B, Ouyang W, Yang C. Antisense oligonucleotide targeting matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) changes the ultrastructure of human A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. Ultrastruct Pathol. 2011;35:256–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shiomi T, Okada Y. MT1-MMP and MMP-7 in invasion and metastasis of human cancers. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2003;22:145–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Liu D, Nakano J, Ishikawa S, Yokomise H, Ueno M, Kadota K, et al. Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) correlates with tumor proliferation, and a poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2007;58:384–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Koskensalo S, Mrena J, Wiksten JP, Nordling S, Kokkola A, Hagstrom J, et al. MMP-7 overexpression is an independent prognostic marker in gastric cancer. Tumour Biol. 2010;31:149–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wu JY, Yi C, Chung HR, Wang DJ, Chang WC, Lee SY, et al. Potential biomarkers in saliva for oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Oncol. 2010;46:226–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yang JD, Nakamura I, Roberts LR. The tumor microenvironment in hepatocellular carcinoma: current status and therapeutic targets. Semin Cancer Biol. 2011;21:35–43.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chen JQ, Zhan WH, He YL, Peng JS, Wang JP, Cai SR, et al. Expression of heparanase gene, CD44v6, MMP-7 and nm23 protein and their relationship with the invasion and metastasis of gastric carcinomas. World J Gastroenterol. 2004;10:776–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Koperek O, Aumayr K, Schindl M, Werba G, Soleiman A, Schoppmann S, et al. Phosphorylation of STAT3 correlates with HER2 status, but not with survival in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. APMIS. 2014;122:476–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cheng S, Eliaz I, Lin J, Thyagarajan-Sahu A, Sliva D. Triterpenes from Poria cocos suppress growth and invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells through the downregulation of MMP-7. Int J Oncol. 2013;42:1869–74.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zhou JH, Zhang B, Kernstine KH, Zhong L. Autoantibodies against MMP-7 as a novel diagnostic biomarker in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17:1373–8.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zhang PJ, Wen XY, Gu F, Deng XX, Liu YL, Li J, et al. Multiplexed cytokine profiling of serum for detection of colorectal cancer. Future Oncol. 2013;9:1017–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Polistena A, Cucina A, Dinicola S, Stene C, Cavallaro G, Ciardi A, et al. MMP7 expression in colorectal tumours of different stages. In Vivo. 2014;28:105–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Edge SB, Compton CC. The American Joint Committee on Cancer: the 7th edition of the AJCC cancer staging manual and the future of TNM. Ann Surg Oncol. 2010;17:1471–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zintzaras E, Ioannidis JP. HEGESMA: genome search meta-analysis and heterogeneity testing. Bioinformatics. 2005;21:3672–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zintzaras E, Ioannidis JP. Heterogeneity testing in meta-analysis of genome searches. Genet Epidemiol. 2005;28:123–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Higgins JP, Thompson SG. Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis. Stat Med. 2002;21:1539–58.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Peters JL, Sutton AJ, Jones DR, Abrams KR, Rushton L. Comparison of two methods to detect publication bias in meta-analysis. JAMA. 2006;295:676–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Song F, Gilbody S. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. Increase in studies of publication bias coincided with increasing use of meta-analysis. BMJ. 1998;316:471.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Liu TZ, Wang R. Levels of serum IGF-I, MMP-7 and IGFBP-3 in colorectal cancer patients. J Zhengzhou Univ. 2011;46:726–8.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wang CL, Wan YL, Dai R, Wang X, Liu YC, Fan BY, et al. Clinical significance of serum matrix metalloproteinases-7 in patients with colorectal carcinoma. J Mod Oncol. 2010;18:1160–4.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gershtein ES, Korotkova EA, Shcherbakov AM, Prorokov VV, Golovkov DA, Kushlinskii NE. Matrix metalloproteinases 7 and 9 and their types 1 and 4 tissue inhibitors in tumors and plasma of patients with colorectal cancer. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2007;143:459–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Maurel J, Nadal C, Garcia-Albeniz X, Gallego R, Carcereny E, Almendro V, et al. Serum matrix metalloproteinase 7 levels identifies poor prognosis advanced colorectal cancer patients. Int J Cancer. 2007;121:1066–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Pryczynicz A, Gryko M, Niewiarowska K, Dymicka-Piekarska V, Ustymowicz M, Hawryluk M, et al. Immunohistochemical expression of MMP-7 protein and its serum level in colorectal cancer. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2013;51:206–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hua H, Li M, Luo T, Yin Y, Jiang Y. Matrix metalloproteinases in tumorigenesis: an evolving paradigm. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2011;68:3853–68.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Shuman Moss LA, Jensen-Taubman S, Stetler-Stevenson WG. Matrix metalloproteinases: changing roles in tumor progression and metastasis. Am J Pathol. 2012;181:1895–9.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ii M, Yamamoto H, Adachi Y, Maruyama Y, Shinomura Y. Role of matrix metalloproteinase-7 (matrilysin) in human cancer invasion, apoptosis, growth, and angiogenesis. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2006;231:20–7.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kuang RG, Wu HX, Hao GX, Wang JW, Zhou CJ. Expression and significance of IGF-2, PCNA, MMP-7, and alpha-actin in gastric carcinoma with Lauren classification. Turk J Gastroenterol. 2013;24:99–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Tanaka T. Colorectal carcinogenesis: review of human and experimental animal studies. J Carcinog. 2009;8:5.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Internal OncologyLiaoning Cancer Hospital and InstituteShenyangPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Surgical OncologyLiaoning Cancer Hospital and InstituteShenyangPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations