Expressions of Survivin and nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells (NF-κB) are associated with a poor prognosis in many malignancies. However, their relationship in hepatocellular carcinoma remains unclear. To investigate the protein expression of Survivin and NF-κB, determine their role in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma, and correlate expression with patient survival outcome, immunohistochemistry was used to detect the protein expression of Survivin and NF-κB in 305 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the protein expression of Survivin and NF-κB and clinicopathological parameters, survival time, and prognosis. Survivin was expressed predominantly in the cytoplasm, and NF-κB was expressed mostly in the nucleolus. Survivin and NF-κB are expressed at significantly higher rates in hepatocellular carcinoma compared with benign tissue (75.7 vs 13.4 %, P < 0.01 and 79.0 vs 17.1 %, P < 0.01, respectively). Both Survivin and NF-κB expression levels are associated with poor prognostic factors, including tumor size, capsular invasion, tumor thrombus of the portal vein, metastasis of the lymph node, and clinical staging. There was an obvious positive correlation between the expression of Survivin and NF-κB in hepatocellular carcinoma (r = 0.23, P < 0.01). Patients expressing Survivin and NF-κB had significantly shorter survival compared with patients negative for protein expression (P < 0.01). The overexpressions of both Survivin and NF-κB are associated with worse survival outcome in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, these proteins could be used as negative prognostic indicators.
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This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 81171441, 81301694, 81371653), the Science and Technology Program of Guangdong Province (no. 2012B060300009, 2011B031800146), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (no. S2012020010904, 7001663, S2011010004247), and the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry (no.20111139).
Conflicts of interest
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