Quantitative metabolome analysis profiles activation of glutaminolysis in glioma with IDH1 mutation
- 979 Downloads
Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1), which localizes to the cytosol and peroxisomes, catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) and in parallel converts NADP+ to NADPH. IDH1 mutations are frequently detected in grades 2–4 gliomas and in acute myeloid leukemias (AML). Mutations of IDH1 have been identified at codon 132, with arginine being replaced with histidine in most cases. Mutant IDH1 gains novel enzyme activity converting α-KG to d-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) which acts as a competitive inhibitor of α-KG. As a result, the activity of α-KG-dependent enzyme is reduced. Based on these findings, 2-HG has been proposed to be an oncometabolite. In this study, we established HEK293 and U87 cells that stably expressed IDH1-WT and IDH1-R132H and investigated the effect of glutaminase inhibition on cell proliferation with 6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine (DON). We found that cell proliferation was suppressed in IDH1-R132H cells. The addition of α-KG restored cell proliferation. The metabolic features of 33 gliomas with wild type IDH1 (IDH1-WT) and with IDH1-R132H mutation were examined by global metabolome analysis using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS). We showed that the 2-HG levels were highly elevated in gliomas with IDH1-R132H mutation. Intriguingly, in gliomas with IDH1-R132H, glutamine and glutamate levels were significantly reduced which implies replenishment of α-KG by glutaminolysis. Based on these results, we concluded that glutaminolysis is activated in gliomas with IDH1-R132H mutation and that development of novel therapeutic approaches targeting activated glutaminolysis is warranted.
KeywordsGlioma IDH1 mutation Metabolome Glutaminolysis
This work was supported in part by the Platform for Drug Discovery, Informatics, and Structural Life Science from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.
- 6.Hirayama A, Kami K, Sugimoto M, Sugawara M, Toki N, Onozuka H, et al. Quantitative metabolome profiling of colon and stomach cancer microenvironment by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Cancer Res. 2009;69(11):4918–25. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-4806.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 8.Hartmann C, Meyer J, Balss J, Capper D, Mueller W, Christians A, et al. Type and frequency of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations are related to astrocytic and oligodendroglial differentiation and age: a study of 1,010 diffuse gliomas. Acta Neuropathol. 2009;118(4):469–74. doi: 10.1007/s00401-009-0561-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 13.Verhaak RG, Hoadley KA, Purdom E, Wang V, Qi Y, Wilkerson MD, et al. Integrated genomic analysis identifies clinically relevant subtypes of glioblastoma characterized by abnormalities in PDGFRA, IDH1, EGFR, and NF1. Cancer Cell. 2010;17(1):98–110. doi: 10.1016/j.ccr.2009.12.020.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 15.Ohka F, Natsume A, Motomura K, Kishida Y, Kondo Y, Abe T, et al. The global DNA methylation surrogate LINE-1 methylation is correlated with MGMT promoter methylation and is a better prognostic factor for glioma. PLoS One. 2011;6(8):e23332. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023332.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 23.Clower CV, Chatterjee D, Wang Z, Cantley LC, Vander Heiden MG, Krainer AR. The alternative splicing repressors hnRNP A1/A2 and PTB influence pyruvate kinase isoform expression and cell metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107(5):1894–9. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0914845107.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 28.Figueroa ME, Abdel-Wahab O, Lu C, Ward PS, Patel J, Shih A, et al. Leukemic IDH1 and IDH2 mutations result in a hypermethylation phenotype, disrupt TET2 function, and impair hematopoietic differentiation. Cancer Cell. 2010;18(6):553–67. doi: 10.1016/j.ccr.2010.11.015.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar