Tumor Biology

, Volume 34, Issue 2, pp 1061–1070 | Cite as

Evaluation of seven different staging systems for alpha-fetoprotein expression in hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatectomy

  • Jianguo Zhou
  • Tao Yan
  • Xinyu Bi
  • Hong Zhao
  • Zhen Huang
  • Yefan Zhang
  • Yuan Li
  • Li Feng
  • Jing Wang
  • Jianqiang Cai
Research Article


Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) represents the most important biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to identify the optimal staging system to predict the survival of AFP-negative and AFP-positive patients. This study analyzed the data of 431 AFP-negative HCC patients who had previously undergone surgery and 471 AFP-positive HCC candidates. Kaplan–Meier (K-M) survival estimates were plotted, and the P values were assessed using log-rank tests. The Akaike information criterion (AIC) was calculated using the results of a Cox’s regression to compare the overall assessment of the seven different staging systems. The AFP-positive group displayed characteristics of poor tumor biological behavior (tumor multiplicity [P = 0.032], low grade differentiation [P = 0.000] and carcinoma cell embolus [P = 0.031]), poor liver function (Child–Pugh B classification [P = 0.003], abnormal prothrombin time activity [P = 0.037] and moderate/severe cirrhosis [P = 0.000]) and increased operative difficulties (transfusion; P = 0.001). TNM7th staging showed the lowest AIC value (1,279.528) for the AFP-negative group, while the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system revealed the lowest AIC value (1,991.233) for the AFP-positive group. In conclusion, among the seven favorable staging systems, BCLC staging was superior for the AFP-positive group, while the TNM7th was a more appropriate staging model for the AFP-negative group.


Hepatocellular carcinoma Alpha-fetoprotein Clinical staging system Survival 



This work was supported by grants from the State Key Project on Infectious Diseases of China (China National Science and Technology Major Project Grant No. 2008ZX10002-025; 2012ZX10002-016).

Conflicts of interest



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Copyright information

© International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jianguo Zhou
    • 1
  • Tao Yan
    • 1
  • Xinyu Bi
    • 1
  • Hong Zhao
    • 1
  • Zhen Huang
    • 1
  • Yefan Zhang
    • 1
  • Yuan Li
    • 1
  • Li Feng
    • 1
  • Jing Wang
    • 1
  • Jianqiang Cai
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Abdominal Surgery, Cancer HospitalChinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical CollegeBeijingChina

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