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In vitro application of redesigned vacuole extracted in yeast

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Abstract

Background

The vacuole in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has vacuoles that contain the similarities with lysosomes, which are acidic compartments containing hydrolytic enzymes in the cell. In the past, research focus was on simple antimicrobial function using hydrolase of vacuoles. Recent studies of vacuoles have uncovered additional roles of vacuoles, and their adaptability to genetic, and biochemical analyses has led to the creation of novel vacuole systems through genetic manipulation and expression control mechanisms.

Objectives

This review briefly introduces the recently reported applications of vacuoles with potential functions that can overcome the toxic issues in biotechnology fields.

Results

Several studies found and decorated biomarkers on vacuolar membrane that react to toxic substances and pathogenic bacteria, and succeeded in detecting both with high sensitivity by developed vacuole. In addition, the recombinant yeast including vacuole to overproduce certain enzymes involved in melanin decolorization has constructed. This engineered yeast demonstrated an effect on melanin reduction and antioxidant activity. Recently, it became possible to control the size of the vacuole through manipulation of the YPT7 gene involved in fusion. Research in the field of nanomedicine using nano-sized vacuole is ongoing. Several researchers encapsulated toxic drug to reduce the side effects, and showed its potential and target specificity as drug carriers for cancer treatment.

Conclusions

Yeast vacuole is being added with novel functions through artificial redesign and genetic engineering. Accordingly, it has drawn a great deal of attention in variety of fields. Therefore, yeast vacuole is expected to be applicable to many fields, and it will provide better opportunities as a new material, especially in fields that value biocompatibility.

Purpose of the review

Recently, the researchers have been revealed novel functions of vacuole in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and their new functions are being emphasized through genetic engineering system and expression control mechanisms. Also, research is being conducted to apply it to various fields. Therefore, this review briefly discusses the recently reported application of vacuoles with potential functions in biotechnology fields.

Recent findings

In addition to the antibacterial function of the vacuole, which is an acidic compartment consisting of hydrolytic enzymes, various studies are being conducted utilizing new functions of the vacuole. Several studies have reconstructed vacuoles to detect specific analytes through regulation of protein expression. The reconstituted vacuole succeeded in detecting certain toxic substances and pathogens. In addition, research on the cosmetic field using the hydrolysis and antioxidant functions of enzymes in the vacuole is being conducted. Accordingly, studies have been published to prove the effect on melanin reduction and antioxidant activity of vacuoles to overproduce certain enzymes. Recently, it has become possible to control the size of vacuoles through genetic manipulation, and research for application in nanomedicine is underway. In particular, utilizing their potential as drug carriers, research results on toxic drug encapsulation and cancer treatment are being reported.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture and Forestry (IPET) through Crop Viruses and Pests Response Industry Technology Development Program, funded by Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA)(321108-04).

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BNK, and WC: investigation writing—original draft preparation, and review and editing. BKC, and JM: conceptualization and supervision. All authors contributed to the writing of manuscript. BNK and WC are co-first authors. BKC and JM are co-corresponding authors.

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Correspondence to Byung-Kwan Cho or Jiho Min.

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Bit-Na Kim declares that she has no conflicts of interest. Wooil Choi declares that he has no conflicts of interest. Byung-Kwan Cho declares that he has no conflicts of interest. Jiho Min declares that she has no conflicts of interest.

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Kim, BN., Choi, W., Cho, BK. et al. In vitro application of redesigned vacuole extracted in yeast. Mol. Cell. Toxicol. 19, 27–31 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13273-022-00301-6

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