Molecular & Cellular Toxicology

, Volume 8, Issue 3, pp 241–247 | Cite as

Electrolyzed-reduced water confers increased resistance to environmental stresses

  • Seul-Ki Park
  • Jum-Ji Kim
  • A. -Reum Yu
  • Mi-Young Lee
  • Sang-Kyu ParkEmail author
Original Paper


Electrolysis of water produces reduced water at the cathode and oxidized water at the anode. Electrolyzed-reduced water (ERW) has an extremely negative oxidation-reduction potential. ERW scavenges cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and suppresses single-strand breaks of plasmid DNA in bacteria. Here, we examined the effect of ERW on resistance to oxidative stress both in vitro and in vivo. Oxidative DNA damage in human lymphocytes was significantly alleviated by ERW by reducing cellular ROS levels. Caenorhabditis elegans grown in media prepared with ERW had increased resistance to oxidative stress caused by paraquat. We observed a significant effect of ERW on response to other stressors, including heat shock and UV-irradiation in C. elegans. These data indicate that the powerful anti-oxidant activity of ERW is due to its radical-scavenging activity and show, for the first time, that ERW could increase thermotolerance and resistance to UV-irradiation. These results suggest that ERW aids resistance to various environmental stresses.


Electrolyzed-reduced water Oxidative stress Thermotolerance Ultraviolet-resistance Caenorhabditis elegans 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Beckman, K. B. & Ames, B. N. The free radical theory of aging matures. Physiol Rev 78:547–581 (1998).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Finkel, T. & Holbrook, N. J. Oxidants, oxidative stress and the biology of ageing. Nature 408:239–247 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Herman, D. Aging: a theory based on free radical and radiation chemistry. J Gerontol 11:298–300 (1956).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Martin, G. M., Austad, S. N. & Johnson, T. E. Genetic analysis of ageing: role of oxidative damage and environmental stresses. Nat Genet 13:25–34 (1996).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Melov, S. et al. Extension of life-span with superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetics. Science 289:1567–1569 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sawada, M. & Carlson, J. C. Association between lipid peroxidation and life-modifying factors in rotifers. J Gerontol 42:451–456 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Oshima, S. et al. Inhibitory effect of beta-carotene and astaxanthin on photosensitized oxidation of phospholipid bilayers. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 39:607–615 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gruber, J., Tang, S. Y. & Halliwell, B. Evidence for a trade-off between survival and fitness caused by resveratrol treatment of Caenorhabditis elegans. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1100:530–542 (2007).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Suh, J. H. et al. Oxidative stress in the aging rat heart is reversed by dietary supplementation with (R)-(alpha)-lipoic acid. FASEB J 15:700–706 (2001).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lim, G. P. et al. The curry spice curcumin reduces oxidative damage and amyloid pathology in an Alzheimer transgenic mouse. J Neurosci 21:8370–8377 (2001).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Park, C. M., Hung, Y. C., Lin, C. S. & Brackett, R. E. Efficacy of electrolyzed water in inactivating Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes on shell eggs. J Food Prot 68:986–990 (2005).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ichihara, T. et al. The efficacy of function water (electrolyzed strong acid solution) on open heart surgery; postoperative mediastinitis due to methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus. Kyobu Geka 57:1110–1112 (2004).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kohno, S. et al. Bactericidal effects of acidic electrolyzed water on the dental unit waterline. Jpn J Infect Dis 57:52–54 (2004).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lee, J. H. et al. Efficacy of electrolyzed acid water in reprocessing patient-used flexible upper endoscopes: Comparison with 2% alkaline glutaraldehyde. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 19:897–903 (2004).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shirahata, S. et al. Electrolyzed-reduced water scavenges active oxygen species and protects DNA from oxidative damage. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 234: 269–274 (1997).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lee, M. Y. et al. Electrolyzed-reduced water protects against oxidative damage to DNA, RNA, and protein. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 135:133–144 (2006).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kim, M. J. & Kim, H. K. Anti-diabetic effects of electrolyzed reduced water in streptozotocin-induced and genetic diabetic mice. Life Sci 79:2288–2292 (2006).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nakayama, M. et al. Biological effects of electrolyzed water in hemodialysis. Nephron Clin Pract 112: c9–c15 (2009).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ye, J. et al. Inhibitory effect of electrolyzed reduced water on tumor angiogenesis. Biol Pharm Bull 31:19–26 (2008).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Johnson, T. E. et al. Gerontogenes mediate health and longevity in nematodes through increasing resistance to environmental toxins and stressors. Exp Gerontol 35:687–694 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lithgow, G. J., White, T. M., Melov, S. & Johnson, T. E. Thermotolerance and extended life-span conferred by single-gene mutations and induced by thermal stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:7540–7544 (1995).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sampayo, J. N., Olsen, A. & Lithgow, G. J. Oxidative stress in Caenorhabditis elegans: protective effects of superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetics. Aging Cell 2:319–326 (2003).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Murakami, S. & Johnson, T. E. A genetic pathway conferring life extension and resistance to UV stress in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics 143:1207–1218 (1996).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yan, H. et al. Extension of the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans by the use of electrolyzed reduced water. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 74:2011–2015 (2010).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yan, H. et al. Mechanism of the lifespan extension of Caenorhabditis elegans by electrolyzed reduced waterparticipation of Pt nanoparticles. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 75:1295–1299 (2011).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Singh, N. P., McCoy, M. T., Tice, R. R. & Schneider, E. L. A simple technique for quantitation of low levels of DNA damage in individual cells. Exp Cell Res 175: 184–191 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Arai, T. et al. Effects of intracellular reactive oxygen species generated by 6-formylpterin on T cell functions. Biochem Pharmacol 67:1185–1193 (2004).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Toxicogenomics and Toxicoproteomics and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seul-Ki Park
    • 1
  • Jum-Ji Kim
    • 1
  • A. -Reum Yu
    • 1
  • Mi-Young Lee
    • 1
  • Sang-Kyu Park
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Medical BiotechnologySoonchunhyang UniversityAsanKorea

Personalised recommendations