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Aircraft noise immission modeling


This contribution to the CEAS special edition Aircraft Noise Generation and Assessment focuses on the simulation of the aircraft noise immission, i.e., the aircraft noise received on the ground. This process includes two steps, the description of the sound emission by the aircraft and the modeling of the sound propagation through the atmosphere. An overview is provided on how aircraft noise immission can be described and assessed by noise descriptors. These quantities can be derived from measurable and computable quantities like maximum sound levels, time-integrated sound levels and the number of aircraft movements. Moreover, a generation of novel noise indices which relate human reactions to noise is presented. Fundamentals of aircraft noise modeling are explained. First, this includes a classification of aircraft noise models into best practice and scientific models and their applicability to the noise mitigation measures described by ICAO’s Balanced Approach to Aircraft Noise Management. Furthermore, the overall workflow of a noise modeling task is explained as well the special role of noise model databases and the simulation of aircraft flight paths. The most common methods used to describe the sound propagation process through the atmosphere are introduced. This covers the modeling of the fundamental propagation effects which are used by all noise model types as well as a description of propagation effects which are of importance only for special modeling tasks and which normally require sophisticated physical approaches. The fundamental difference between best practice and scientific aircraft noise models—i.e., the source modeling—is described in detail thereafter. Best practice models are based on a simple source description. Moreover, a common approach is to combine emission and propagation using pre-calculated noise–power–distance tables. In contrast, scientific models are of multi-source type, i.e., they differentiate between particular noise-generating mechanisms—at least between engine noise and aerodynamic noise. This model type always requires a time step-based flightpath description, whereas the best practice models usually are based on a flightpath description by longer segments. Finally, the selected application examples are presented for both model categories. This covers the range from noise zoning over what-if studies for noise mitigation measures or definition of noise abatement flight procedures up to the modeling of noise reduction measures at the source. Finally, the application of scientific models in the aircraft design phase is explained.

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  1. Various noise source models are published and available on



Bypass ratio

c :

Speed of sound (m/s)

\(d_n\) :

Atmospheric absorption coefficient for frequency band n (dB/m)

E :

Normalized noise exposure


Effective perceived noise level (dB)

f :

Frequency (Hz)

\(f_{\text {AWR}}\) :

Exposure–response relationship for aircraft noise-induced awakenings

F :

Energy fraction


Frankfurter Nacht index


Frankfurter Tages index

\(H_{\text {rel}}\) :

Relative humidity (%)

l :

Length of flightpath segment (m)

L :

Sound level (dB)

\(L_{\text {AX}}\) :

Sound exposure level (synonym for \(L_{p{\text {,AE}}}\)) (dB)

\(L_{\text {max}}\) :

Maximum sound level (dB)

\(\overline{L_{\text {max}}}\) :

Average maximum sound level

\(L_{N\%}\) :

N% percentile level

\(L_{\text {den}}\) :

Day–evening–night sound level (dB

\(L_{\text {E}}\) :

Single event sound level (dB)

\(L_{\text {eq}}\) :

Equivalent continuous sound level (dB)

\(L_{p{\text {,AE}}}\) :

A-weighted single event sound pressure level (dB)

\(L_{p,{\text {A,eq}}}\) :

A-weighted equivalent continuous sound pressure level (dB)

\(L_{\text {r}}\) :

Rating level (dB)

\(L_{\text {thr}}\) :

Threshold level (dB)

\(L_{W,n}\) :

Sound power level of frequency band n (dB)

N :

Number of noise events

\(N_{\text {thr}}\) :

Number of noise events above a threshold level

\(N_{\text {AWR}}\) :

Number of aircraft noise-induced awakenings


Number above threshold

P :

Engine power parameter


Perceived noise level (dB)


Tone-corrected perceived noise level (dB)

s :

Distance between source and observer (m)


Sound exposure level (synonym for \(L_{p{\text {,AE}}}\)) (dB)

t :

Time (s)

\(t_{0}\) :

Normalizing time (s)

\(t_{10}\) :

10 dB down time (s)

\(t_{\text {e}}\) :

Effective duration (s)

\(t_{\text {ret}}\) :

Retarded time (s)

T :

Temperature (\(^\circ\)C)

\(T_{\text {c}}\) :

Characterization time (s)

\(T_i\) :

Partial time (of rating time) (s)

\(T_{\text {r}}\) :

Rating time (s)

V :

Aircraft speed (m/s)

Z :

Level correction accounting for engine power changes (dB)


Zürcher Fluglärm index

\(\alpha , \beta\) :

Elevation angles

\(\Delta _{\text {atm}}\) :

Level correction for atmospheric attenuation (dB)

\(\Delta _{\text {div}}\) :

Level correction for geometrical spreading (dB)

\(\Delta _{\text {grnd}}\) :

Level correction for overground attenuation (dB)

\(\theta\) :

Longitudinal emission angle

\(\varphi\) :

Lateral emission angle

\({\text {A}}\) :

Frequency weighting A

\({\text {PN}}\) :

Perceived noise

E :


\({\text {eff}}\) :


\({\text {eq}}\) :


k :

Flightpath segment number

n :

Frequency band number

p :


\({\text {r}}\) :

Rating (level or time)

\({\text {S}}\) :

Time weighting SLOW

\({\text {thr}}\) :


W :

Sound power

\(\text {in}\) :

Indoor value

\(\text {obs}\) :

Value at observer position

\(\text {src}\) :

Related to the sound source


Aircraft Noise and Performance Database


Aircraft Noise Prediction Program


German aircraft noise calculation procedure


ECAC Standard method for aircraft noise calculation


Swiss aircraft noise calculation procedure


International Civil Aviation Organization


Integrated Noise Model


Noise–power–distance data


Parametric Aircraft Noise Analysis Module


Society of Automotive Engineers


Swiss aircraft noise calculation procedure


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Isermann, U., Bertsch, L. Aircraft noise immission modeling. CEAS Aeronaut J 10, 287–311 (2019).

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  • Aircraft noise
  • Aircraft noise modeling