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CEAS Aeronautical Journal

, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 69–76 | Cite as

Limits and challenges of aircraft retrofitting for noise reduction

  • Michael Pott-PollenskeEmail author
Review Paper
  • 41 Downloads

Abstract

As many aircraft are operated over decades, a short-term noise reduction is not a matter of new aircraft developments but strongly targeting the question how to reduce the noise generated by the existing aircraft fleet. Operational means such as, e.g., steep constant descent approaches provide only limited noise reduction. Therefore, a source noise reduction is still the most promising way to achieve meaningful aircraft noise reductions. As is obvious, all the kinds of retrofit technology to reduce airframe and engine-related noise needs to undergo the typical and precisely defined EASA or FAA certification procedures to ensure the safe aircraft operation and to guarantee compliance with environmental standards. In the course of this paper, selected limits and challenges will be described that occur during this procedure and that need to be incorporated in the noise reduction device’s design and application. It turns out that from the certification perspective as well as from the economical point of view, the weight of any noise reduction device is crucial. Against this background, the noise reduction per kilogram excess weight becomes a figure of merit that should be maximized apart of or in addition to the Effective Perceived Noise Level which serves for decades as both a noise certification metric and figure of merit.

Keywords

Aircraft noise High lift system noise Landing gear noise Flight test 

List of symbols

A

Cross-section area (m2)

bF

Thrust-specific fuel burn (kg/(N*s))

CS

Certification specification

cL

Lift coefficient

cD

Drag coefficient

D

Aerodynamic drag (N)

E

Lift over drag ratio

EASA

European Aviation Safety Agency

FAA

Federal Aviation Administration

FAR

Federal Aviation Regulation

F

Force (N)

FMS

Flight Management System

g

Gravity (m/s2)

ICAO

International Civil Aviation Organization

JAR

Joint aviation requirements

l

Lever arm length (m)

m0

Initial aircraft weight (kg)

mt

Used fuel weight (kg)

NEO

New engine option

OEM

Original equipment manufacturer

q

Dynamic pressure (Pa)

S

Aerodynamic reference wing area (m2)

V

Flight speed (m/s)

VLE

Landing gear extend speed (m/s)

VSR

Reference stall speed (m/s)

V2MIN

Minimum takeoff safety speed (m/s)

VREF

Reference flight speed (m/s)

VMC

Minimum control speed (m/s)

W

Aircraft gross weight (kg)

α

Angle of attack (°)

δF

Flap deflection angle (°)

δS

Slat deflection angle (°)

ρ

Density of air (kg/m3)

Φ

Polar radiation angle (°)

Ψ

Azimuthal radiation angle (°)

Notes

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Copyright information

© Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.BrunswickGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow TechnologyBrunswickGermany

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