Flight mechanics model for spanwise lift and rolling moment distributions of a segmented active high-lift wing


In this study, the aerodynamics of wings using an active high-lift system are investigated. The target is the flight mechanical description of the spanwise forces and resulting moments and the influence of the active high-lift system to their distribution. The high-lift system is a blown flap system divided into six segments per wing. Each segment is assumed to be individually controlled, so the system shall be used for aircraft control and system failure management. This work presents a flight mechanical sub-model for the simulation of flight dynamics, which has been derived from high-fidelity CFD results. An assessment of single-segment blowing system failures will be presented including recommendations for compensation of either lift or rolling moment loss. For this investigation, the compensation is required to act at the same wing side on which the failure appears. Thus, the potential for an increase of system reliability shall be proven. The results show that less performance investment in terms of pressurized air is necessary to compensate the rolling moment of a failing segment instead of its lift. However, large blowing performance increases for the remaining wing segments that occur for some of the failure cases.

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    Release 2007b by Mathworks®.

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    Institute of Aircraft Design and Lightweight Structures (IFL), TU Braunschweig.


B :

Failure model area (–)

C :

Coefficient or derivative (–)

\(\tilde{C}_{L}\) :

Lift coefficient for segment failure (–)

\(C_{L,loc}\) :

Local lift coefficient (–)

\(dC_{L}\) :

Spanwise lift coefficient increment (–)

\(c_{loc}\) :

Local wing chord length (m)

\(c_{MAC}\) :

Wing mean aerodynamic chord length (m)

\(C_{\mu }\) :

Jet momentum coefficient (–)

\({C}_{\mu ,loc}\) :

Local jet momentum coefficient (–)

\(c_{p}\) :

Pressure coefficient (–)

E :

Segment failure factor (–)

F :

Force (N)

I :

Mass inertia (kgm2)

\(\hat{k}\) :

Mapping gradient for local jet momentum (–)

k :

Lift Gradient with respect to jet momentum (–)

M :

Mach number (–)

m :

Mass (kg)

\(\dot{m}\) :

Mass flow (kg/s)

P :

Jet momentum performance factor (–)

pqr :

Angular rates (°/s)

\(q_{\infty },\bar{q}\) :

Dynamic pressure (N/m2)

S :

Main wing area (m2)

\(u_{k},v_{k},w_{k}\) :

Aircraft velocity (inertial frame) (m/s)

\(v_{jet}\) :

Fluid velocity (m/s)

xyz :

Aircraft position (m)

Y :

Dimensionless wingspan location (–)

\(\alpha\) :

Angle of attack (°)

\(\varPhi ,\varTheta ,\varPsi\) :

Aircraft attitude angles (°)

\({C_{\mu }}\) :

With respect to jet momentum coefficient

fl :


i :

Number of wing segment

j :

Normalized wingspan coordinate

jet :

Jet of the blowing system

L :


l :

Rolling moment

n :

Number of jet momentum setting


Six degrees of freedom


Boundary Layer Control


Circulation Control


Computational Fluid Dynamics


Deutsches Zentrum f++r Luft- und Raumfahrt (German Aerospace Center)


Internally blown flaps


National Aeronautics and Space Administration


Preliminary Aircraft Design and Optimization [tool]


Sonderforschungsbereich (Collaborative Research Center)


Short Take-off and Landing


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This work has been supported by the provision of particular CFD results for the spanwise aerodynamics of the wing with DLR’s TAU code by Dennis Keller. The reference aircraft design has been developed by Wolfgang Heinze with PrADO. The research is conducted within the framework of the Sonderforschungsbereich 880.

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Correspondence to J. H. Diekmann.

Additional information

This paper is based on a presentation at the German Aerospace Congress, September 13–15, 2016, Braunschweig, Germany.

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Diekmann, J.H., Keller, D., Faez, E. et al. Flight mechanics model for spanwise lift and rolling moment distributions of a segmented active high-lift wing. CEAS Aeronaut J 8, 625–635 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13272-017-0261-4

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  • Active high-lift
  • Coandă flaps
  • Flight dynamics model
  • Short take-off and landing
  • Spanwise lift distribution
  • Aircraft control