Investigations in the past show the considerable potential of active flow control (AFC) to enhance the aircraft aerodynamic performance. This publication describes the work carried out regarding the integration of an AFC system into a CFRP flap for Next Generation Aircraft considering operational aspects. Based on a two-stage fluidic AFC actuator, a system integration concept is developed. Robustness, simplicity and maintainability are the main drivers for the integration work. Using genetic and evolutionary multi-objective optimization the most promising flap concept regarding lightweight design and integration is developed at TU Dresden ILR. This concept is numerically sized and designed in detail. The concept feasibility is shown by a 2-m span full-scale demonstrator at Airbus Group Innovations. This demonstrator is successfully tested regarding system operational capability as well as for static and fatigue performance. To investigate the structural influence of AFC blowout slits within the upper flap surface, an extensive static and dynamic coupon test program is conducted at TU Dresden ILK and TU Braunschweig IFL. In parallel, analytic and numeric methods are used to verify stress concentration within the slotted area by TU Dresden ILR.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Schmalzel, M., Varghese, P., Wygnanski, I.: Steady and oscillating flow control tests for tilt rotor aircraft, in active flow control. Papers contributed to the conference “active flow control 2006”, notes on numerical fluid mechanics and multidisciplinary design, vol. 95, Berlin, 2006
Stanewsky, E., Rosemann, H.: Active flow control applied to military and civil aircraft, RTV/AVT (AGARD). Symposium, Braunschweig, 2000
Kibens, V., Bower, W.W.: An overview of active flow control applications at the Boeing Company. 2nd AIAA Flow Control Conference, 2004, Portland, Oregon, AIAA 2004–2624
Ciobaca, V., Wild, J.: An overview of recent DLR contributions on active flow-separation control studies for high-lift configurations. Aerosp. Lab J. (6), 1–12 (2013)
Goldhammer, M.: The next decade in commercial aircraft aerodynamics—a Boeing perspective. Aerodays 2011, Madrid, Spain, ROI 2009-0501-1167
Cattafesta III, L.N., Sheplak, M.: Actuators for active flow control. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 43, 247–272 (2011)
Jahanmiri, M.: Active flow control: a review, research report 2010:12. Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg (2010). ISSN 1652-8549
Ternoy, F., Dandois, J., David, F., Pruvost, M: Overview of onera actuators for active flow control. Aerosp. Lab J. (6) (2013)
Wang, L., Luo, Z., Xia, Z., Liu, B., Deng, X.: Review of actuators for high speed active flow control. Sci. China Technol. Sci. 55(8), 2225–2240 (2012)
Ciobaca, V., Kühn, T., Rudnik, R., Bauer, M., Gölling, B.: Active flow separation control on a high-lift wing-body configuration—part 2: the pulsed blowing application. In: 29th AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, 27–30 June 2011, AIAA 2011-3169
Haucke, F., Peltzer, I., Nitsche, W.: Active separation control on a slatless 2D high-lift wing section. In: 26th International Congress of the Aeronautical Sciences, 2008
Ciobaca, V.: Validation of numerical simulations for separation control on high-lift configurations. Ph.D. Dissertation, Technische Universität Berlin, ISRN DLR-FB–2014 -11 (2014)
Meyer, M., Machunze, W., Bauer, M: Towards the industrial application of active flow control in civil aircraft—an active highlift flap. AIAA Aviation and Aeronautics Forum and Exposition, San Diego (2014)
Petz, R., Nitsche, W.: Active separation control on the flap of a two-dimensional generic high-lift configuration. J. Aircr. 44(3), 865–874 (2007)
Bauer, M., Peltzer, I., Nitsche, W., Gölling, B.: Active flow control on an industry-relevant civil aircraft half model, vol. 108 of notes on numerical fluid mechanics and multidisciplinary design, pp. 95–107. Springer, Berlin (2010)
Bauer, M., Lohse, J., Haucke, F., Nitsche, W.: High-lift performance investigation of a two-element configuration with a two-stage actuator system. AIAA J. 52(6), 1307–1313 (2014)
Rädel, M., Wolf, K., Ulbricht, A., Machunze, W., Horst, P., Fabel, T.: JTI clean sky—smart fixed wing aircraft—project AFCIN—periodic report 03/2012, Dresden (2012)
Urik, T., Malis, M.: Innovative composite structures for small aircraft. In: Proceedings of the 26th International Congress of the Aeronautical Sciences, Anchorage, ICAS (2008)
Rädel, M., Seeger, J., Wolf, K.: A fast method for calculating the mechanical properties of arbitrary multi-material cross sections. DLRK 2014, Augsburg
Bailie, J.A., Ley, R.P., Pasricha, A.: A summary and review of composite laminate design guidelines, Task 22, NASA Contract NAS1-19347. NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton (1997)
Kaletta, P: Ein Beitrag zur Effizienzsteigerung Evolutionärer Algorithmen zur optimalen Auslegung von Faserverbundstrukturen im Flugzeugbau. PhD thesis, TU Dresden (2006)
Seeger, J., Wolf, K.: Multi-objective design of complex aircraft structures using evolutionary algorithms. In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering, pp. 1153–1164 (2011)
Seeger, J., Wolf, K.: Structural optmization of adaptive airfoils using evolutionary algorithms. In: Proceedings of the 1st CEAS European Air and Space Conference, Berlin (2007)
Haftka, R., Gürdal, Z.: Elements of Structural Optimization, 3rd ed. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (1991)
Cuntze, R.G.: Efficient 3D and 2D failure conditions for UD laminae and their application within the verification of the laminate design. Compos. Sci. Technol. 66, 1081–1096 (2006)
Lee, Y.L., Pan, J., Hathaway, R., Barkey, M.: Fatigue Testing and Analysis—Theory and Practice. Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, Burlington (2005)
The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the European Union for the project Clean Sky SFWA-WP 1.3.8 AFCIN inside the European Community’s Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) for the Clean Sky Joint Technology Initiative. Furthermore, the authors would like to thank Matthias Lengers, Heribert Bieler and Ulrich Scholz (all Airbus Operations GmbH) for their outstanding support. The authors thank the Center for Information Services and High-Performance Computing (ZIH) at TU Dresden for generous allocations of computer time.
This paper is based on a presentation at the German Aerospace Congress, September 16–18, 2014, Augsburg, Germany.
About this article
Cite this article
Machunze, W., Gessler, A., Fabel, T. et al. Active flow control system integration into a CFRP flap. CEAS Aeronaut J 7, 69–81 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13272-015-0171-2
- Active flow control (AFC)