Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Characteristics of PEMFC operation in ambient- and low-pressure environment considering the fuel cell humidification

CEAS Aeronautical Journal Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

This paper summarizes experimental results of an air-fed polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell system HyPM XR 12 (Hydrogenics Corp.) considering fuel cell temperature, stoichiometry, and load requirement variations at ambient and low-pressure operation. The experimental work realized at a low-pressure test facility designed and assembled by the German Aerospace Center, Institute of Engineering Thermodynamics is based on an experimental design. The experimental results confirm reduced fields of fuel cell operation as well as a decreased gross stack performance and efficiency at low operating pressures (950 mbar ≥ p ≥ 600 mbar) for the defined fuel cell temperature, stoichiometry, and load requirement. In addition, indexes of the operating parameters are introduced, characterizing the fuel cell operation with regard to the gross stack performance and efficiency at ambient and low-pressure levels. The discussion of the results considers analyses of fuel cell humidification.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Institutional subscriptions

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11

Notes

  1. Reference: Cruise (700 mbar) and ground operation (1,000 mbar). Pressure in emergency operation down to 200 mbar (cp. cabin decompression) [9].

  2. The evaluation of the fuel cell humidification for the measuring points in Tables 5, 6, 7 and 8 is based on the relative humidity rH calculated for the PEMFC parameters examined. The classification “dry” (rh <90 %), “adequate”, (90 % ≤ rh ≤ 110 %) and “flooded” (rh >110 %) is introduced.

  3. Tables 6, 7 and 8 consider measuring points characterized by the operating pressure p_cathode_in ≈700 or 950 mbar.

References

  1. Zeroual, M., et al.: Numerical study of the effect of the inlet pressure and the height of gas channels on the distribution and consumption of reagents in a fuel cell (PEMFC). Energy Procedia 18, 205–214 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Pratt, J.W., et al.: Performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cell at high-altitude conditions. J. Propuls. Power 23(2) (2007)

  3. Haraldsson, K., et al.: Effects of ambient conditions on fuel cell vehicle performance. J. Power Sources 145, 298–306 (2005)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Misran, E., et al.: Water transport characteristics of a PEM fuel cell at various operating pressures and temperatures. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy (in press)

  5. Santarelli, M.G.: Experimental analysis of the effects of the operating variables on the performance of a single PEMFC. Energy Conversion and Management 48, 40–51 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Horde, T.: PEMFC application for aviation: experimental and numerical study of sensitivity to altitude. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 37, 10818–10829 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Murthy, M., et al.: The effect of temperature and pressure on the performance of a PEMFC exposed to transient CO concentrations. J. Electrochem. Soc. 150(1), A29–A34 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Larminie, J., et al.: Fuel Cell Systems Explained. Wiley, West Sussex (2003)

    Book  Google Scholar 

  9. Rossow, C.-C., Wolf, K., Horst, P.: Handbuch der Luft-fahrzeugtechnik. Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH & Co. KG, München (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  10. Santarelli, M.G., et al.: Experimental analysis of cathode flow stoichiometry on the electrical performance of a PEMFC stack. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 32, 710–716 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Kim, S., et al.: The effect of stoichiometry on dynamic behavior of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) during load change. J. Power Sources 135, 110–121 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Chu, D., et al.: Performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stacks—Part 1. Evaluation and simulation of an air-breathing PEMFC stack. J. Power Sources 83, 128–133 (1999)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Jiang, R., et al.: Stack design and performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. J. Power Sources 93, 25–31 (2001)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Amirinejad, M., et al.: Effects of operating parameters on performance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. J. Power Sources 161, 872–875 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Mallant, R.K.A.M.: PEMFC systems: the need for high temperature polymers as a consequence of PEMFC water and heat management. J. Power Sources 118, 424–429 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Hinds, G., et al.: Novel in situ measurements of relative humidity in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. J. Power Sources 186, 52–57 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Zhang, J., et al.: PEM fuel cells operated at 0% relative humidity in the temperature range of 23–120 & #xB0;C. Electrochim. Acta 52, 5095–5101 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Matlab version 2007b. http://www.mathworks.com

  19. Ericsson, L., et al.: Design of Experiments: Principles and Applications, pp. 219–220. Learnways AB, Umea (2000)

    Google Scholar 

  20. Matlab Version 2014. http://www.mathworks.com

  21. Kurzweil, P.: Brennstoffzellentechnik—Grundlagen, Komponenten, Systeme, Anwendungen. Friedr. Vieweg & Son Verlag/GWV Fachverlag GmbH, Wiesbaden (2003)

    Google Scholar 

  22. Berning, T.: The dew point temperature as a criterion for optimizing the operating conditions of proton ex-change membrane fuel cells. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 37, 10265–10275 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. VDI-Gesellschaft Verfahrenstechnik und Chemieingenieurwesen (Hrsg.): VDI-Wärmeatlas. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)

  24. Werner, C., Busemeyer, L., Kallo, J.: The impact of operating parameters and system architecture on the water management of a multifunctional PEMFC system. Proc. World Hydrog. Energy Conf. (2014, in press)

Download references

Acknowledgments

The research work presented in this paper is part of the Cluster „Kabinentechnologie und Innovative Brennstoffzelle“(Project Number: 03CL03D) supported by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). The authors gratefully acknowledge the support received.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to C. Werner.

Appendix

Appendix

Main effects and interactions are considered in the design of experiments. Main effects of the first (linear), the second (quadratic), the third (cubic), and the fourth (biquadratic) orders are those summands that include only one input variable in the first to fourth order. First-order interactions include products of two input variables; second order interactions include products of three input variables, and so on. Non-linear effects are those products, which include at least one input variable quadratically. The presented model considers every summand up to the third order as well as biquadratic main effects and the third-degree interactions. The remaining nonlinear interactions belonging to the fourth order are excluded from the model. The quadruplets shown in Tables 9 and 10 are the exponents of the operating parameters λ, t, p, and I in the model function

$$Y = \mathop \sum \limits_{j = 1}^{n} \beta_{j} \cdot \lambda^{j1} \cdot t^{j2} \cdot p^{j3} \cdot I^{j4}$$
(10)

where Y represents the target variable, β j the model coefficients, and j 1j 4 the exponents shown in Tables 9 and 10. For example, the effect 1200 (cp. Table 10, 1st line, 4th column) is written in the model function as

$$Y = \beta_{j} \cdot \lambda^{1} \cdot t^{2} \cdot p^{0} \cdot I^{0} = \beta_{j} \cdot \lambda ^{1} \cdot t^{2}$$
(11)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Werner, C., Gores, F., Busemeyer, L. et al. Characteristics of PEMFC operation in ambient- and low-pressure environment considering the fuel cell humidification. CEAS Aeronaut J 6, 229–243 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13272-014-0142-z

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13272-014-0142-z

Keywords

Navigation