Gene expression profiles during differentiation and transdifferentiation of bovine myogenic satellite cells
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The molecular mechanisms underlying myogenic satellite cells (MSCs) differentiation into myotube-formed cells (MFCs) and transdifferentiation into adipocyte-like cells (ALCs) are unclear. As a step towards understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying MSC differentiation and transdifferentiation, we attempted to identify the genes differentially expressed during differentiation and transdifferentiation using gene microarray analysis (GMA). Thirty oligonucleotide arrays were used with two technical replicates and nine and six biological replicates for MFCs vs. MSCs and ALCs vs. MSCs, respectively, to contrast expression profile differences. GMA identified 1,224 differentially expressed genes by at least 2-fold during differentiation and transdifferentiation of MSCs. To select the highly expressed genes for future functional study, genes with a 4-fold expression difference were selected for validation by real time RT-PCR and approximately 96.9% of the genes were validated. The up-regulation of marker genes for myogenesis (MYL2, MYH3) and adipogenesis (PPARγ, and FABP4) was observed during the differentiation and transdifferentiation of MSCs into MFCs and ALCs, respectively. KOG analysis revealed that the most of the genes up-regulated during differentiation and transdifferentiation of MSCs were related to signal transduction. Again the exact location of 109 differentially expressed genes by 4-fold were analyzed by chromosome mapping. Among those, co-localization of 29 genes up-regulated during transdifferentiation with QTL for marbling score and intramuscular fat percentage supports the involvement of these genes in cellular transdifferentiation. Interestingly, some genes with unknown function were also identified during the process. Functional studies on these genes may unfold the molecular mechanisms controlling MSC differentiation and transdifferentiation.
KeywordsGene expression microarray Myogenic satellite cells Adipocyte-like cells Differentiation Transdifferentiation
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