Selecting the Number of States in Hidden Markov Models: Pragmatic Solutions Illustrated Using Animal Movement

  • Jennifer Pohle
  • Roland Langrock
  • Floris M. van Beest
  • Niels Martin Schmidt

DOI: 10.1007/s13253-017-0283-8

Cite this article as:
Pohle, J., Langrock, R., van Beest, F.M. et al. JABES (2017). doi:10.1007/s13253-017-0283-8


We discuss the notorious problem of order selection in hidden Markov models, that is of selecting an adequate number of states, highlighting typical pitfalls and practical challenges arising when analyzing real data. Extensive simulations are used to demonstrate the reasons that render order selection particularly challenging in practice despite the conceptual simplicity of the task. In particular, we demonstrate why well-established formal procedures for model selection, such as those based on standard information criteria, tend to favor models with numbers of states that are undesirably large in situations where states shall be meaningful entities. We also offer a pragmatic step-by-step approach together with comprehensive advice for how practitioners can implement order selection. Our proposed strategy is illustrated with a real-data case study on muskox movement.

Supplementary materials accompanying this paper appear online.


Animal movement Information criteria Selection bias Unsupervised learning 

Supplementary material

13253_2017_283_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (17 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (pdf 16 KB)
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Supplementary material 2 (pdf 5 KB)
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Supplementary material 3 (R 7 KB)
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Supplementary material 5 (txt 1076 KB)
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Supplementary material 6 (R 2 KB)
13253_2017_283_MOESM7_ESM.pdf (159 kb)
Supplementary material 7 (pdf 159 KB)

Copyright information

© International Biometric Society 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennifer Pohle
    • 1
  • Roland Langrock
    • 1
  • Floris M. van Beest
    • 2
  • Niels Martin Schmidt
    • 2
  1. 1.Bielefeld UniversityBielefeldGermany
  2. 2.Aarhus UniversityRoskildeDenmark

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