Power density measurements to optimize AC plasma jet operation in blood coagulation
- 56 Downloads
In this paper, the plasma power density and corresponding plasma dose of a low-cost air non-thermal plasma jet (ANPJ) device are estimated at different axial distances from the nozzle. This estimation is achieved by measuring the voltage and current at the substrate using diagnostic techniques that can be easily made in laboratory; thin wire and dielectric probe, respectively. This device uses a compressed air as input gas instead of the relatively-expensive, large-sized and heavy weighed tanks of Ar or He gases. The calculated plasma dose is found to be very low and allows the presented device to be used in biomedical applications (especially blood coagulation). While plasma active species and charged-particles are found to be the most effective on blood coagulation formation, both air flow and UV, individually, do not have any effect. Moreover, optimal conditions for accelerating blood coagulation are studied. Results showed that, the power density at the substrate is shown to be decreased with increasing the distance from the nozzle. In addition, both distances from nozzle and air flow rate play an important role in accelerating blood coagulation process. Finally, this device is efficient, small-sized, safe enough, of low cost and, hence, has its chances to be wide spread as a first aid and in ambulance.
KeywordsANPJ Power density Plasma dose Coagulation time Plasma treatment
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 3.Fridman G, Peddinghaus M, Balasubramanian M, Ayan H, Fridman A, Gutsol A, Brooks A (2006) Blood coagulation and living tissue sterilization by floating-electrode dielectric barrier discharge in air. Plasma Chem Plasma Process 26(4):425–442. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11090-006-9024-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 4.Fridman G, Shereshevsky A, Jost MM, Brooks AD, Fridman A, Gutsol A, Vasilets V, Friedman G (2007) Floating electrode dielectric barrier discharge plasma in air promoting apoptotic behavior in melanoma skin cancer cell lines. Plasma Chem Plasma Process 27(2):163–176. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11090-007-9048-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Baxter HC, Campbell GA, Whittaker AG, Aitken A, Simpson AH, Casey M, Jones AC, Bountiff L, Gibbard L, Baxter R (2005) Elimination of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy infectivity and decontamination of surgical instruments by using radio-frequency gas-plasma treatment. J Gen Virol 86(8):2393–2399. https://doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.81016-0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 15.Kalghatgi SU, Fridman G, Cooper M, Nagaraj G, Peddinghaus M, Balasubramanian M, Vasilets VN, Gutsol AF, Fridman A, Friedman G (2007) Mechanism of blood coagulation by nonthermal atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma. IEEE Trans Plasma Sci 35(5):1559–1566. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPS.2007.905953 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 17.Kuo SP, Tarasenko O, Chang J, Popovic S, Chen C, Fan H, Scott A, Lahiani M, Alusta P, Drake J, Nikolic M (2009) Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding. New J Phys 11:115016. https://doi.org/10.1088/1367-2630/11/11/115016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.Lu X, Zou F (2011) On the mechanism of plasma inducing cell apoptosis. In: Abstracts IEEE international conference on plasma science (ICOPS), Chicago, Illinois, USA, 26–30 June. https://doi.org/10.1109/PLASMA.2011.5993039
- 22.Hoffmann M, Ulrich A, Schloericke E, Limmer S, Habermann JK, Wolken H, Bruch H-P, Kujath P (2012) The application of cold-plasma coagulation on the visceral pleura results in a predictable depth of necrosis without fistula generation. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 14(3):239–243. https://doi.org/10.1093/icvts/ivr109 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 29.Janani E et al (2017) Blood coagulation by low energy plasma jet. In: ISPC 20, 20th international symposium on plasma chemistry, Philadelphia, USA, 24–29 July 2011Google Scholar
- 34.Begum A, Laroussi M, Pervez MR (2011) Dielectric probe: a new electrical diagnostic tool for atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma jet. Int J Eng Technol 11(3):209–215Google Scholar
- 36.Say MG, Laughton MA (2003) Network analysis. In: Electrical engineer’s reference book, 16th edn. Newnes, Oxford, pp 3-1, 3-3-3-44, ISBN 9780750646376, https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-075064637-6/50003-4
- 38.Ahmed KM (2014) Design and experimental investigations of electrical breakdown in a plasma jet device and applications, PhD thesis, Faculty of Engineering at Shoubra, Benha university, CairoGoogle Scholar
- 39.Greer JP, Foerster J, Lukens JN, Rodgers GM, Paraskevas F (2003) Wintrobe’s clinical hematology, 11th edn. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 41.Fathollah S, Mirpour S, Mansouri P, Dehpour AR, Ghoranneviss M, Rahimi N, Naraghi ZS, Chalangari R, Chalangari KM (2016) Investigation on the effects of the atmospheric pressure plasma on wound healing in diabetic rats. Sci Rep 6:19144. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep19144 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar