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Time-dependent flow velocity measurement using two-dimensional color Doppler flow imaging and evaluation by Hagen–Poiseuille equation

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Abstract

This paper aims to develop a technique to assess velocity flow profile and wall shear stress (WSS) spatial distribution across a vessel phantom representing an artery. Upon confirming the reliability of the technique, it was then used on a set of carotid arteries from a cohort of human subjects. We implemented color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) for measurement of velocity profile in the artery cross section. Two dimensional instantaneous and time-dependent flow velocity and WSS vector fields were measured and their waveforms of peak velocities based on the technique were compared with WSS values generated by Hagen–Poiseuille equation. Seventy-five patients with intima-media thickening were prospectively enrolled and were divided into an IMT group. At the same time, another 75 healthy volunteers were enrolled as the control group. All the subjects were scanned and the DICOM files were imported into our in-house program. Next, we determine the velocity profile of carotid arteries in a set of 150 human subjects and compared them again. The peak velocities by the CDFI and Hagen–Poiseuille equation techniques were compared and statistically evaluated. The amounts of deviation for the two measured WSS profiles were performed and we demonstrated that they are not significantly different. At two different flow settings with peak flow velocity of 0.1, 0.5 (×10−11) m/s, the obtained WSS were 0.021 ± 0.04, 0.038 ± 0.05 m/s, respectively. For the patient population study, the mean WSS value calculated by Hagen–Poiseuille equation was 2.98 ± 0.15 dyne/cm2, while it was 2.31 ± 0.14 dyne/cm2 by our CDFI analysis program. The difference was not statistically significant (t = −1.057, P = 0.259). Similar to the Hagen–Poiseuille equation, a negative linear correlation was also found between the calculated WSS and intima-media thickness (P = 0.000). Using CDFI analysis, we found that the WSS distribution at the middle of the proximal plaque shoulder was larger than the top of the shoulder. CDFI can assess the velocity and WSS profile accurately and efficiently and may be used for clinical diagnosis of cardiovascular conditions.

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Acknowledgments

The study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 81401428 and 81571693) and the Academic Leaders Training Program of Pudong Health Bureau of Shanghai (Grant No. PWRd2013-02), and Pudong science and technology development fund innovation funds of Shanghai (Grant No. PKJ2015-Y17) and Key Disciplines Group Construction Project of Pudong Health Bureau of Shanghai (PWZxq2014-01).

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Correspondence to Bo Zhang.

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Bo Zhang and Yuqing Sun have contributed equally to this study.

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Zhang, B., Sun, Y., Xia, L. et al. Time-dependent flow velocity measurement using two-dimensional color Doppler flow imaging and evaluation by Hagen–Poiseuille equation. Australas Phys Eng Sci Med 38, 755–766 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13246-015-0396-8

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