Laser metal deposition (LMD) is extensively used for repairing and remanufacturing mechanical components. Amongst these components, the vast majority comprise of cylindrical and planar geometries. In recent remanufacturing work, it is a challenge to generate a deposition tool-path directly from point cloud data of a damaged surface. Additionally, the acquisition of high resolution point cloud data that is necessary to carry out a high precision repair presents another problem since it is a time-consuming process. Hence, this paper explores a novel approach for tool-path generation for the repair of cylindrical components directly from point clouds via LMD technology. The presented method discounts the surface reconstruction and registration steps and directly generates tool-path from the damaged point cloud data. In this paper, a comparison is drawn between the traditional framework of reverse engineering and the proposed approach. Following, a tool-path generation method is presented, which incorporates enhancing the resolution or information density of the point cloud data. Finally, the results are validated through a robot laser cladding system (RLCS), which carries out autonomous repair based on the tool-path algorithm. The proposed method is demonstrated to repair a cylindrical fixed bend.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Ahmad R, Plapper P (2015) Human-robot collaboration: twofold strategy algorithm to avoid collisions using ToF sensor. Int J Mater Mech Manuf 4:144–147
Ahmad R, Tichadou S, Hascoet JY. Generation of safe and intelligent tool-paths for multi-axis machine-tools in a dynamic 2D virtual environment. Int J Comput Integr Manuf [internet]. Taylor & Francis; 2016;29:982–95. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1080/0951192X.2015.1130258, 2015
Ahmad R, Tichadou S, Hascoet JY (2017) A knowledge-based intelligent decision system for production planning. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 89:1717–1729
Chua CK, Wong CH, Yeong WY (2017) Software and Data Format. Stand Qual Control Meas Sci 3D Print Addit Manuf. 75–94
Funes-Lora MA, Portilla-Flores EA, Vega-Alvarado E, Blas RR, Cruz EAM, Romero MFC (2019) A novel mesh following technique based on a non-approximant surface reconstruction for industrial robotic path generation. IEEE Access 7:22807–22817
Gao J, Chen X, Zheng D, Yilmaz O, Gindy N (2006) Adaptive restoration of complex geometry parts through reverse engineering application. Adv Eng Softw 37:592–600
Lee J, Son H, Kim C, Kim C (2013) Skeleton-based 3D reconstruction of as-built pipelines from laser-scan data. Autom Constr [internet]. Elsevier B.V.; 35:199–207. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2013.05.009
Li L, Li C, Tang Y, Du Y (2017) An integrated approach of reverse engineering aided remanufacturing process for worn components. Robot Comput Integr Manuf Elsevier Ltd 48:39–50
Liu Y, Bobek T, Klocke F (2015) Laser path calculation method on triangulated mesh for repair process on turbine parts. CAD Comput aided des [internet]. Elsevier ltd; 66:73–81. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cad.2015.04.009
Liu J, Chen Q, Zheng Y, Ahmad R, Tang J, Ma Y (2019) Level set-based heterogeneous object modeling and optimization. CAD Comput aided des [internet]. Elsevier ltd; 110:50–68. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cad.2019.01.002
Liu J, Zheng Y, Ahmad R, Tang J, Ma Y (2019) Minimum length scale constraints in multi-scale topology optimisation for additive manufacturing. Virtual Phys Prototyp Taylor & Francis 14:229–241
Masood A, Siddiqui R, Pinto M, Rehman H, Khan MA (2015) Tool path generation, for complex surface machining, using point cloud data. Procedia CIRP [internet]. Elsevier B.V.; 26:397–402. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2014.07.076
Mazumder J, Schifferer A, Choi J (1999) Direct materials deposition: designed macro and microstructure. Mater Res Soc Symp - Proc 542:51–63
Mineo C, Pierce SG, Nicholson PI, Cooper I (2017) Introducing a novel mesh following technique for approximation-free robotic tool path trajectories. Propuls power res [internet]. Society for Computational Design and Engineering; 6:192–202. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcde.2017.01.002, 2017
Nowotny S, Scharek S, Beyer E, Richter KH (2007) Laser beam build-up welding: precision in repair, surface cladding, and direct 3D metal deposition. J Therm Spray Technol 16:344–348
Pomerleau F, Colas F, Siegwart R (2015) A review of point cloud registration algorithms for Mobile robotics. Found Trends Robot 4:1–104
Rahimifard S, Clegg AJ (2007) Aspects of sustainable design and manufacture. Int J Prod Res 45:4013–4019
Smith L, Ball P (2012) Steps towards sustainable manufacturing through modelling material, energy and waste flows. Int J prod econ [internet]. Elsevier; 140:227–38. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2012.01.036
Tang P, Huber D, Akinci B, Lipman R, Lytle A. (2010) Automatic reconstruction of as-built building information models from laser-scanned point clouds: a review of related techniques. Autom Constr [internet]. Elsevier B.V.; 19:829–43. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2010.06.007
Um J, Rauch M, Hascoët JY, Stroud I (2017) STEP-NC compliant process planning of additive manufacturing: remanufacturing. Int J Adv Manuf Technol [internet]. The international journal of advanced manufacturing technology; 88:1215–30. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-016-8791-1
Wilkes P, Lau A, Disney M, Calders K, Burt A (2017) Gonzalez de Tanago J, et al. data acquisition considerations for terrestrial laser scanning of forest plots. Remote Sens environ [internet]. The authors; 196:140–53. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2017.04.030
Wilson JM, Piya C, Shin YC, Zhao F, Ramani K (2014) Remanufacturing of turbine blades by laser direct deposition with its energy and environmental impact analysis. J clean prod [internet]. Elsevier ltd; 80:170–8. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.05.084
Yilmaz O, Gindy N, Gao J (2010) A repair and overhaul methodology for aeroengine components. Robot Comput Integr Manuf [internet]. Elsevier; 26:190–201. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rcim.2009.07.001
Zhang X, Li W, Cui W, Liou F (2018) Modeling of worn surface geometry for engine blade repair using laser-aided direct metal deposition process. Manuf Lett [internet]. Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME); 15:1–4. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mfglet.2017.11.001
Zheng J, Li Z, Chen X (2006) Worn area modeling for automating the repair of turbine blades. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 29:1062–1067
Zheng Y, Qureshi AJ, Ahmad R (2018) Algorithm for remanufacturing of damaged parts with hybrid 3D printing and machining process. Manuf Lett. Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME) 15:38–41
Zheng Y, Liu J, Liu Z, Wang T, Ahmad R (2019) A primitive-based 3D reconstruction method for remanufacturing. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 103:3667–3681
We express our gratitude to Group Six Technologies Inc. for their intellectual assistance and technical support. We also express our appreciation to the other team members in the Laboratory of Intelligent Manufacturing, Design and Automation (LIMDA) for sharing their wisdom during the research. The authors acknowledge the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC), Grant Nos. (NSERC RGPIN-2017-04516 and NSERC CRDPJ 537378-18) for funding this project.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Imam, H.Z., Zheng, Y. & Ahmad, R. An efficient tool-path planning approach for repair of cylindrical components via laser cladding. Jnl Remanufactur (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13243-020-00096-6
- Reverse engineering
- Laser cladding
- Robot laser cladding system
- Tool-path generation