Analysis about the incorporation of remanufacturing concept into life cycle assessment theories

  • Aitor San-FranciscoEmail author
  • Nerea Sopelana
  • Jose-Maria Fernandez
  • Jose-Ramon Otegi
  • Rikardo Minguez


In Circular Economy, remanufacturing is one of the most beneficial circular loops to guarantee the conservation of resources. There are some alternatives to multiple life cycle products such as reuse, renovation, refurbishment or recycling although remanufacturing is the only option that introduces multiple life cycle products in the market as if these products were new. The objective of this research is to assess the requirement of a better alternative for the End of Cycle in Life Cycle Assessment from the remanufacturing perspective. Life Cycle Assessment is an environmental accounting and management approach that considers all the aspects of resource use and environmental releases associated with an industrial system from cradle to grave. Aiming at this, different system boundaries and allocation methodologies have been considered. The following four methodologies have been analyzed: Ecoinvent, Environdec, International Reference Life Cycle Data and European Product Environmental Footprint. In the studied methods, the recovery appears as reuse, energetic recovery or recovery to second life. These methods elude the remanufacturing perspective; therefore, how remanufacturing would fit for each of the selected methodologies has been analyzed.


Life cycle assessment Circular economy Remanufacturing Ecodesign End of life 



The authors would like to thank the University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, in particular the Faculty of Engineering in Bilbao, and the Basque Ecodesign Hub for promoting this research technically.

Author contributions

This paper was written by Aitor San-Francisco, Nerea Sopelana, Jose-Maria Fernandez, Jose-Ramon Otegi and Rikardo Minguez in a team work process.

Funding information

This research was funded by IHOBE which is a publicly-owned company coming under the Environmental Office of the Basque Government’s Ministry for the Environment, Territorial Planning and Housing.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of the Basque Country UPV/EHULeioaSpain
  2. 2.IHOBEBilbaoSpain

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