Journal of Remanufacturing

, Volume 9, Issue 2, pp 109–127 | Cite as

Network configuration of a bottled water closed-loop supply chain with green supplier selection

  • Pezhman Papen
  • Saman Hassanzadeh AminEmail author


A closed-loop supply chain is defined as the combination of both forward and reverse supply chains. However, it is in reverse supply chains that environmental issues are emphasized. In this research, a closed-loop supply chain network is designed and optimized to reduce the impact of bottled water production on the environment and maximize the total profit simultaneously. Unlike a general closed-loop supply chain network, in this network, the recycling centers are placed inside the manufacturers, in the same facility location, and the drop-off depots are parts of retailers in order to reduce environmental issues. In addition to designing and optimizing a bottled water closed-loop supply chain network, we also select the best suppliers based on some criteria, including cost, carbon footprint, on-time delivery, and quality. To achieve this aim, a multi-objective programming model and solution approaches are developed. The application of the proposed mathematical model is shown in Montreal, Canada, using real locations.


Closed-loop supply chain Bottled water industry Multi-objective technique Reverse logistics Mixed-integer linear programming 



The authors would like to thank the editor and reviewers for the great comments and suggestions. In addition, they would like to thank Dr. Hossein Zolfagharinia because of the valuable comments for improving this research.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Industrial EngineeringRyerson UniversityTorontoCanada

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