Hydrodynamic performance testing is one of the core in vitro assessments required by the ISO 5840 series of standards for all prosthetic heart valves. A round-robin study carried out in 2005 in accordance with ISO 5840:2005 revealed significant variabilities in prosthetic heart valve hydrodynamic performance measurements among the participating laboratories. In order to re-examine the inter-laboratory variability based on the “state-of-the-art” under ISO 5840-1 and 5840-2:2015, the ISO Cardiac Valve Working Groups decided in 2016 to repeat the round-robin study.
A total of 13 international laboratories participated in the study. The test valves were chosen to be the St. Jude Medical Masters Series mechanical valves (19 mm aortic, 25 mm aortic, 25 mm mitral, and 31 mm mitral), which were circulated among the laboratories. The testing was conducted according to a common test run sequence, with prespecified flow conditions.
The study revealed improved, yet still significant variability among different laboratories as compared to the 2005 study. The coefficient of variation ranged from 7.7 to 21.6% for the effective orifice area, from 10.1 to 32.8% for the total regurgitant fraction, and from 14.7 to 45.5% for the mean transvalvular pressure gradient.
The study revealed the ambiguities in the current versions of the ISO 5840 series of standards and the shortcomings of some participating laboratories. This information has allowed the ISO Working Group to incorporate additional clarifying language into the ISO 5840-1, -2, and -3 standards that are currently under revision to improve in vitro assessments. The results presented here can also be used by the testing laboratories to benchmark pulse duplicator systems and to train and certify testing personnel.
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We thank St. Jude Medical, Inc. (now part of Abbott) for providing the test valves. The findings and conclusions in this article have not been formally disseminated by the U.S. FDA and should not be construed to represent any agency determination or policy. The mention of commercial products, their sources, or their use in connection with material reported herein is not to be construed as either an actual or implied endorsement of such products by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
The authors did not receive any funding to carry out the work.
The mention of commercial products, their sources, or their use in connection with material reported herein is not to be construed as either an actual or implied endorsement of such products by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
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Associate Editor Ajit P. Yoganathan oversaw the review of this article.
Appendix A contains the valve hydrodynamic performance results for Runs 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7.
Appendix B contains the raw hydrodynamic waveforms obtained from the different laboratories.
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Wu, C., Saikrishnan, N., Chalekian, A.J. et al. In-Vitro Pulsatile Flow Testing of Prosthetic Heart Valves: A Round-Robin Study by the ISO Cardiac Valves Working Group. Cardiovasc Eng Tech 10, 397–422 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13239-019-00422-5
- Prosthetic heart valves
- Hydrodynamic performance testing
- Effective orifice area
- Total regurgitant fraction
- Mean pressure gradient