Although the Chandler loop model has been used in various in vitro flow studies, there is a lack of guidance on the selection of the appropriate sample volume. The questions of how to determine the appropriate sample volume and its effect on blood activation have not been fully addressed. This study proposes a new criterion for determining sample volume and defines a time-averaged wall shear stress equation for this model. In vitro experiments were performed to investigate the implications of sample volume on blood cell activation in the presence of model stent. Experimental results indicated that in the absence of a stent and for shear stress up to about 56 dyn/cm2, platelet activation was independent of volume and shear. On the other hand, the formation of platelet–leukocyte aggregates was affected by volume as well as the presence of a stent. Doubling blood volume for the same stent resulted in a twofold decrease in platelet microparticle formation and platelet–leukocyte aggregation. These results demonstrate the importance of selecting appropriate sample volume for the Chandler loop model, since it influences blood activation parameters, especially platelet–leukocyte aggregation formation, which can play an important role in material-induced thrombosis. These results have significance for in vitro screening of materials for biocompatibility.
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This work was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Ontario Graduate Scholarship and the University of Waterloo. We wish to acknowledge the help of Miriam Heynem for collecting blood samples and the help of volunteers. The authors also thank John Medley for reviewing the manuscript.
Conflict of interest
Tidimogo Gaamangwe, Sean D. Peterson and Maud B. Gorbet declare that they have no conflict of interest.
No human studies were carried out by the authors for this article. All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 (5). Informed consent was obtained from all participants for being included in the study.
No animal studies were carried out by the authors for this article.
Associate Editor Keefe B. Manning oversaw the review of this article.
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Gaamangwe, T., Peterson, S.D. & Gorbet, M.B. Investigating the Effect of Blood Sample Volume in the Chandler Loop Model: Theoretical and Experimental Analysis. Cardiovasc Eng Tech 5, 133–144 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13239-014-0179-5
- Time-averaged shear stress
- Helical stent
- Curved tube friction factor
- Intermittent flow blood activation
- In vitro model parameters
- Sample volume determination