Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology

, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp 133–144 | Cite as

Investigating the Effect of Blood Sample Volume in the Chandler Loop Model: Theoretical and Experimental Analysis

  • Tidimogo Gaamangwe
  • Sean D. Peterson
  • Maud B. Gorbet


Although the Chandler loop model has been used in various in vitro flow studies, there is a lack of guidance on the selection of the appropriate sample volume. The questions of how to determine the appropriate sample volume and its effect on blood activation have not been fully addressed. This study proposes a new criterion for determining sample volume and defines a time-averaged wall shear stress equation for this model. In vitro experiments were performed to investigate the implications of sample volume on blood cell activation in the presence of model stent. Experimental results indicated that in the absence of a stent and for shear stress up to about 56 dyn/cm2, platelet activation was independent of volume and shear. On the other hand, the formation of platelet–leukocyte aggregates was affected by volume as well as the presence of a stent. Doubling blood volume for the same stent resulted in a twofold decrease in platelet microparticle formation and platelet–leukocyte aggregation. These results demonstrate the importance of selecting appropriate sample volume for the Chandler loop model, since it influences blood activation parameters, especially platelet–leukocyte aggregation formation, which can play an important role in material-induced thrombosis. These results have significance for in vitro screening of materials for biocompatibility.


Time-averaged shear stress Helical stent Curved tube friction factor Intermittent flow blood activation In vitro model parameters Sample volume determination 


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Copyright information

© Biomedical Engineering Society 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tidimogo Gaamangwe
    • 1
  • Sean D. Peterson
    • 2
  • Maud B. Gorbet
    • 1
  1. 1.Systems Design EngineeringUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada
  2. 2.Mechanical and Mechatronics EngineeringUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada

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