Advertisement

The Nucleus

, Volume 53, Issue 1–2, pp 51–54 | Cite as

Molecular cytogenetics of Astyanax ribeirae (Teleostei, Characidae), an endemic characin of the Atlantic rainforest

  • Karine Frehner Kavalco
  • Rubens Pazza
  • Lurdes Foresti de Almeida-Toledo
Original Article

Abstract

Astyanax ribeirae is a characin fish endemic to Ribeira de Iguape river basin, Brazil. Karyotypic analysis of the specimen from distinct geographic regions depicted similar karyotypic features, i.e. 2n = 50 constituting the 4 M + 10SM + 6ST + 30A and a fundamental number (FN) equal to 70. Further analysis on linear differentiation using silver nitrate staining, c-banding and rDNA localization revealed single NOR on ST/A chromosomes, heterochromatin blocks in the pericentromeric region of some chromosomes, and four 18S rDNA sites and six 5S rDNA sites, all located on ST/A chromosomes. FISH with As-51 satellite DNA probe presented no homology signals in chromosomes of A. ribeirae, indicating uniqueness of species within the genus Astyanax. The chromosomal and molecular cytogenetic data obtained on A. ribeirae specimens collected from Atlantic rainforest areas are discussed to elucidate relationship between this species and other species in the genus vis-à-vis chromosomal evolution of the group. This is the first report on cytogenetic analysis of Astyanax ribeirae.

Keywords

Characiformes Ecological genetics FISH Karyotype Chromosome evolution 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank LR Malabarba LR and V Bertaco for the taxonomical identification, CE Lopes for the help with the samples, and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) for the financial support. The experiments comply with the current laws in Brazil.

References

  1. 1.
    Abel LDS, Mantovani M, Moreira-Filho O. Chromosomal distribution of the As-51 satellite DNA in two species complexes of the genus Astyanax (Pisces, Characidae). Genet Mol Biol. 2006;29:448–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Almeida FFM, Carneiro CDR. Origem e evolução da Serra do Mar Rev Bras Geociências. 1998;28:135–50.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Almeida-Toledo LF, Ozouf-Costaz C, Foresti F, Bonillo C, Porto-Foresti F, Daniel-Silva MFZ. Conservation of the 5S-bearing chromosome pair and co-localization with major rDNA clusters in five species of Astyanax (Pisces, Characidae). Cytogenet Genome Res. 2002;97:229–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Eigenmann CH. Am Characidae Mem Mus Comp Zool. 1921;23:209–310.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ferro DAM, Néo DM, Moreira-Filho O, Bertollo LAC. Nucleolar organizing regions, 18S and 5S rDNA in Astyanax scabripinnis (Pisces, Characidae): populations’ distribution and functional diversity. Genetica. 2001;110:55–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gold JR, Li C, Shipley NS, Powers PK. Improved methods for working with fish chromosomes with a review of metaphase chromosome banding. J Fish Biol. 1990;37:563–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hatanaka T, Galetti Jr PM. Mapping of the 18S and 5S ribosomal RNA genes in the fish Prochilodus argenteus Agassiz, 1829 (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae). Genetica. 2004;122:239–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kavalco KF, Almeida-Toledo LF. Molecular cytogenetics of blind mexican tetra and comments on the karyotypic characteristics of genus Astyanax (Teleostei, Characidae). Zebrafish. 2007;4:103–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kavalco KF, Brandão KO, Pazza R, Almeida-Toledo LF. Astyanax hastatus Myers, 1928 (Teleostei, Characidae): a new species complex within the genus Astyanax? Genet Mol Biol. 2009;32:477–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kavalco KF, Moreira-Filho O. Cytogenetical analyses in four species of the genus Astyanax (Pisces, Characidae) from Paraíba do Sul river basin. Caryologia. 2003;56:453–61.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kavalco KF, Pazza R. A rapid alternative technique for obtaining silver-positive patterns in chromosomes. Genet Mol Biol. 2004;27:196–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kavalco KF, Pazza R, Bertollo LAC, Moreira-Filho O. Gene mapping of 5 S rDNA sites in eight fish species from the Paraíba do Sul river basin. Brazil Cytogenet Genome Res. 2004;106:107–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kavalco KF, Pazza R, Bertollo LAC, Moreira-Filho O. Satellite DNA sites of four species of the genus Astyanax (Teleostei, Characiformes). Genet Mol Biol. 2007;30:329–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kavalco KF, Pazza R, Almeida-Toledo LF. Astyanax bockmanni Vari and Castro, 2007: an ambiguous karyotype in the Astyanax genus. Genetica. 2009;136:135–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Levan A, Fredga K, Sandberg AA. Nomenclature for centromeric position on chromosomes. Hereditas. 1964;52:201–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mantovani M, Abel LDS, Mestriner CA, Moreira-Filho O. Accentuated polymorphism of heterochromatin and nucleolar organizer regions in Astyanax scabripinnis (Pisces, Characidae): tools for understanding karyotypic evolution. Genetica. 2000;109:161–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mantovani M, Abel LDS, Moreira-Filho O. Evidence of the differentiated structural arrangement of constitutive heterochromatin between two populations of Astyanax scabripinnis (Pisces, Characidae). Genet Mol Biol. 2004;27:536–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Martins C, Galetti Jr PM. Chromosomal localization of 5S rDNA genes in Leporinus fish (Anostomidae, Characiformes). Chromosome Res. 1999;7:363–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mestriner CA, Galetti Jr PM, Valentini SR, Ruiz IRG, Abel LDS, Moreira-Filho O, et al. Structural and functional evidence that a B chromosome in the characid fish Astyanax scabripinnis is an isochromosome. Heredity. 2000;85:1–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mizoguchi SMHN, Martins-Santos IC. Activation patterns of the nucleolar organizer region in Astyanax scabripinnis populations (Pisces, Characidae). Cytologia. 1998;63:259–65.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mizoguchi SMHN, Martins-Santos IC. Cytogenetic and morphometric differences in populations of Astyanax “scabripinnis” (Pisces Characidae) from Maringá region. PR Brazil Genet Mol Biol. 1998;21:55–61.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    MMA (2000) Avaliação de ações prioritárias para a conservação da biodiversidade da Mata Atlântica e Campos Sulinos. Eds Conservation International do Brasil, Fundação SOS Mata Atlântica, Fundação Biodiversitas, Instituto de Pesquisas Ecológicas, Secretaria do Meio Ambiente do Estado de São Paulo, SEMAD/Instituto Estadual de Florestas-MG Brasília Ministério do Meio Ambiente/SBF 40p.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Oyakawa OT, Akama A, Mautari KC, Nolasco JC. Peixes de riachos da Mata Atlântica. São Paulo: Editora Neotropica; 2006.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pazza R, Kavalco KF. Chromosomal evolution in the Neotropical Characin Astyanax (Teleostei, Characidae). Nucleus. 2007;50:523–47.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pazza R, Kavalco KF, Bertollo LAC. Chromosome Polymorphism in Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae). I—Karyotypic analysis, Ag-NORs and mapping of the 18S and 5S ribosomal genes in sympatric karyotypes and their possible hybrid forms. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2006;112:313–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pazza R, Kavalco KF, Bertollo LAC. Chromosome Polymorphism in Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae). II—Gene mapping of satellite DNA. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2008;122:61–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pinkel D, Straume T, Gray JW. Cytogenetic analysis using quantitative, high-sensitivity, fluorescence hybridization. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1986;83:2934–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rocon-Stange EA, Almeida-Toledo LF. Supernumerary B chromosomes restricted to males in Astyanax scabripinnis (Pises, Characidae). Braz J Genet. 1993;16:601–15.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Souza IL, Moreira-Filho O. Cytogenetic diversity in the Astyanax scabripinnis species complex (Pisces, Characidae). I—Allopatric distribution in a small stream. Cytologia. 1995;60:1–11.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sumner AT. A simple technique for demonstrating centromeric heterocromatin. Exp Cell Res. 1972;75:304–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Vicari MR, Artoni RF, Moreira-Filho O, Bertollo LAC. Colocalization of repetitive DNAs and silencing of major rRNA genes. A case report of the fish Astyanax janeiroensis. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2008;122:67–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Archana Sharma Foundation of Calcutta 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karine Frehner Kavalco
    • 1
  • Rubens Pazza
    • 1
  • Lurdes Foresti de Almeida-Toledo
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratório de Genética Ecologica e EvolutivaUniversidade Federal de ViçosaRio ParanaíbaBrazil
  2. 2.Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Genética e Biologia EvolutivaUniversidade de São PauloSão PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations