## Abstract

Due to complex dependencies between multiple layers and components of emerging cyber-physical systems, security and vulnerability of such systems have become a major challenge in recent years. In this regard, game theory, a powerful tool for modeling strategic interactions between multiple decision makers with conflicting objectives, offers a natural paradigm to address the security-related issues arising in these systems. While there exists substantial amount of work in modeling and analyzing security problems using game-theoretic techniques, most of the existing literature in this area focuses on static game models, ignoring the *dynamic* nature of interactions between the main players (defenders vs. attackers). In this paper, we focus only on dynamic game analysis of cyber-physical security problems and provide a general overview of the existing results and recent advances based on application domains. We also discuss several limitations of the existing models and identify several hitherto unaddressed directions for future research.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

## Notes

- 1.
A strategy can be either pure or mixed, meaning that a player can either choose a particular action with probability 1, or based on a probability distribution over its set of possible actions.

- 2.
A perfect Bayesian equilibrium is a set of strategies and beliefs for every player at every information set, so that the beliefs are derived from the strategies and common prior beliefs using Bayes’ rule, and the strategies are optimal at every point in the game, given the players’ beliefs.

- 3.
Fictitious play is a learning rule in which at each round, each player best responds to the empirical frequency of play of his opponents.

- 4.
Colonel Blotto game is a multi-dimensional problem on strategic resource allocation. In its classic form, it is a two-player game in which two colonels are tasked with allocating a limited number of troops over multiple battlefields, with the player allocating the most troops to a front being declared the winner, and the overall payoff being proportional to the number of fronts won.

- 5.
Pursuit–evasion games model many security problems where one or more evaders try to escape a group of pursuing units; see [21].

- 6.
Incentive compatibility means that agents have no incentive to misreport their safety states, while individual rationality implies that agents voluntarily have incentives to participate in the mechanism.

- 7.
In an information system, the system’s overall security usually depends on its weakest link.

- 8.
This is a strategy that yields the highest total payoff for that player if he knows the entire sequence of attacks

*a priori*.

## References

- 1.
Acquisti A, Dingledine R, Syverson P (2003) On the economics of anonymity. In: International conference on financial cryptography. Springer, pp 84–102

- 2.
Akyol E, Rose K, Başar T (2015) Optimal zero-delay jamming over an additive noise channel. IEEE Trans Inf Theory IT–61:4331–4344

- 3.
Akyol E, Rose K, Başar T (2013) On communication over Gaussian sensor networks with adversaries: further results. In: Proceedings of international conference on decision and game theory for security (GameSec). Springer, pp 1–9

- 4.
Alpcan T, Başar T (2011) Network security: a decision and game theoretic approach. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

- 5.
Alpcan T, Başar T (2004) A game theoretic analysis of intrusion detection in access control systems. In: 43rd IEEE conference on decision and control (CDC), vol 2, pp 1568–1573

- 6.
Alpcan T, Başar T (2006) An intrusion detection game with limited observations. In: 12th international symposium on dynamic games and applications, vol 26. Sophia Antipolis, France

- 7.
Alpern S, Lidbetter T, Morton A, Papadaki K (2016) Patrolling a pipeline. In: Proceedings of international conference on decision and game theory for security (GameSec). Springer, pp 129–138

- 8.
Amin S, Schwartz GA, Hussain A (2013) In quest of benchmarking security risks to cyber-physical systems. IEEE Netw 27(1):19–24

- 9.
An B, Brown M, Vorobeychik Y, Tambe M (2013) Security games with surveillance cost and optimal timing of attack execution In: Proceedings of the 2013 international conference on autonomous agents and multi-agent systems, pp 223–230

- 10.
Anderson R, Moore T, Nagaraja S, Ozment A (2007) Incentives and information security. Algorithmic Game Theory, pp 633–649

- 11.
Balcan M-F, Blum A, Haghtalab N, Procaccia AD (2015) Commitment without regrets: online learning in Stackelberg security games. In: Proceedings of the sixteenth ACM conference on economics and computation, pp 61–78

- 12.
Bandyopadhyay T, Liu D, Mookerjee VS, Wilhite AW (2014) Dynamic competition in IT security: a differential games approach. Inf Syst Front 16(4):643–661

- 13.
Bansal R, Başar T (1989) Communication games with partially soft power constraints. J Optim Theory Appl 61(3):329–346

- 14.
Basak A, Fang F, Nguyen TH, Kiekintveld C (2016) Combining graph contraction and strategy generation for green security games. In: Proceedings of international conference on decision and game theory for security (GameSec). Springer, pp 251–271

- 15.
Başar T (1983) The Gaussian test channel with an intelligent jammer. IEEE Trans Inf Theory IT–29(1):152–157

- 16.
Başar TÜ, Başar T (1982) Optimum coding and decoding schemes for the transmission of a stochastic process over a continuous-time stochastic channel with partially unknown statistics. Stochastics 8(3):213–237

- 17.
Başar T, Başar TÜ (1984) A bandwidth expanding scheme for communication channels with noiseless feedback and in the presence of unknown jamming noise. J Frankl Inst 317(2):73–88

- 18.
Başar TÜ, Başar T (1989) Optimum linear causal coding schemes for Gaussian stochastic processes in the presence of correlated jamming. IEEE Trans Inf Theory 35(1):199–202

- 19.
Başar T, Wu YW (1985) A complete characterization of minimax and maximin encoder-decoder policies for communication channels with incomplete statistical description. IEEE Trans Inf Theory IT–31(4):482–489

- 20.
Başar T, Wu YW (1986) Solutions to a class of minimax decision problems arising in communication systems. J Optim Theory Appl 51(3):375–404

- 21.
Başar T, Olsder GJ (1999) Dynamic noncooperative game theory. Series in classics in applied mathematics, SIAM, Philadelphia

- 22.
Behrens DA, Caulkins JP, Feichtinger G, Tragler G (2007) Incentive Stackelberg strategies for a dynamic game on terrorism. Adv Dyn Game Theory, pp 459–486

- 23.
Bensoussan A, Kantarcioglu M, Hoe S (2010) A game-theoretical approach for finding optimal strategies in a Botnet defense model. In: Proceedings of international conference on decision and game theory for security (GameSec), pp 135–148

- 24.
Bhattacharya S, Gupta A, Başar T (2013) Jamming in mobile networks: a game-theoretic approach. J. Numer Algebra Control Optim 3(1):1–30

- 25.
Bhattacharya S, Başar T (2010) Game-theoretic analysis of an aerial jamming attack on a UAV communication network. In: American control conference (ACC). IEEE, pp 818–823

- 26.
Bhattacharya S, Başar T (2011) Spatial approaches to broadband jamming in heterogeneous mobile networks: a game-theoretic approach. J Autonomous Robots

- 27.
Bloem M, Alpcan T, Başar T (2006) Intrusion response as a resource allocation problem. In: 45th IEEE conference on decision and control, pp 6283–6288

- 28.
Böhme R, Moore T (2016) The “iterated weakest link” model of adaptive security investment. J Inf Secur 7(02):81

- 29.
Bommannavar P, Alpcan T, Bambos N (2011) Security risk management via dynamic games with learning. In: IEEE international conference on communications (ICC), pp 1–6

- 30.
Carroll TE, Grosu D (2011) A game theoretic investigation of deception in network security. Secur Commun Netw 4(10):1162–1172

- 31.
Casey W, Morales JA, Nguyen T, Spring J, Weaver R, Wright E, Metcalf L, Mishra B (2014) Cyber security via signaling games: toward a science of cyber security. In: International conference on distributed computing and internet technology. Springer, pp 34–42

- 32.
Casey W, Weaver R, Metcalf L, Morales JA, Wright E, Mishra B (2014) Cyber security via minority games with epistatic signaling. In: Proceedings of the 8th international conference on bioinspired information and communications technologies, pp 133–140

- 33.
Cavallo R (2008) Efficiency and redistribution in dynamic mechanism design. In: Proceedings of the 9th ACM conference on electronic commerce, pp 220–229

- 34.
Çeker H, Zhuang J, Upadhyaya S, La QD, Soong B-H (2016) Deception-based game theoretical approach to mitigate DoS attacks. In: International conference on decision and game theory for security. Springer, pp 18–38

- 35.
Chen J, Zhu Q (2016) Optimal contract design under asymmetric information for cloud-enabled internet of controlled things. In: Proceedings of international conference on decision and game theory for security (GameSec). Springer, pp 329–348

- 36.
Chicoisne R, Ordóñez F (2016) Risk averse Stackelberg security games with quantal response. In: Proceedings of international conference on decision and game theory for security (GameSec). Springer, pp 83–100

- 37.
Chung K, Kamhoua CA, Kwiat KA, Kalbarczyk ZT, Iyer RK (2016) Game theory with learning for cyber security monitoring. In: 17th IEEE international symposium on high assurance systems engineering (HASE), pp 1–8

- 38.
Culnane C, Teague V (2016) Strategies for voter-initiated election audits. In: Proceedings of international conference on decision and game theory for security (GameSec). Springer, pp 235–247

- 39.
Dziubiński M, Sankowski P, Zhang Q (2016) Network elicitation in adversarial environment. In: Proceedings of international conference on decision and game theory for security (GameSec). Springer, pp 397–414

- 40.
Fang F, Stone P, Tambe M (2015) When security games go green: designing defender strategies to prevent poaching and illegal fishing. In: IJCAI, pp 2589–2595

- 41.
Fang H, Xu L, Wang X (2017) Coordinated multiple-relays based physical-layer security improvement: a single-leader multiple-followers Stackelberg game scheme. In: IEEE transactions on information forensics and security, pp 75–80

- 42.
Farhadi F, Tavafoghi H, Teneketzis D, Golestani J (2017) A dynamic incentive mechanism for security in networks of interdependent agents. In: 7th EAI international conference on game theory for networks

- 43.
Farhang S, Grossklags J (2016) Flipleakage: a game-theoretic approach to protect against stealthy attackers in the presence of information leakage. In: Proceedings of international conference on decision and game theory for security (GameSec). Springer, pp 195–214

- 44.
Farhang S, Manshaei MH, Esfahani MN, Zhu Q (2014) A dynamic Bayesian security game framework for strategic defense mechanism design. In: International conference on decision and game theory for security. Springer, pp 319–328

- 45.
Ghafouri A, Abbas W, Laszka A, Vorobeychik Y, Koutsoukos X (2016) Optimal thresholds for anomaly-based intrusion detection in dynamical environments. In: International conference on decision and game theory for security. Springer, pp 415–434

- 46.
Gibson AS (2013) Applied hypergame theory for network defense. Air Force Inst of Tech WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH Graduate School of Engineering Management. Tech. Rep

- 47.
Gravin N, Peres Y, Sivan B (2016) Towards optimal algorithms for prediction with expert advice. In: Proceedings of the twenty-seventh annual ACM-SIAM symposium on discrete algorithms, pp 528–547

- 48.
Gupta A, Langbort C, Başar T (2017) Dynamic games with asymmetric information and resource constrained players with applications to security of cyberphysical systems. IEEE Trans Control Netw Syst 4(1):71–81

- 49.
Gupta A, Langbort C, Başar T (2010) Optimal control in the presence of an intelligent jammer with limited actions. In: 49th IEEE conference on decision and control (CDC), pp 1096–1101

- 50.
Gupta A, Schwartz G, Langbort C, Sastry SS, Başar T (2014) A three-stage Colonel Blotto game with applications to cyber-physical security. In: Proceedings of IEEE American control conference (ACC), pp 3820–3825

- 51.
He X, Dai H, Ning P (2015) Improving learning and adaptation in security games by exploiting information asymmetry. In: IEEE conference on computer communications (INFOCOM), pp 1787–1795

- 52.
Horák K, Bošanskỳ B (2016) A point-based approximate algorithm for one-sided partially observable pursuit-evasion games. In: Proceedings of international conference on decision and game theory for security (GameSec). Springer, pp 435–454

- 53.
House JT, Cybenko G (2010) Hypergame theory applied to cyber attack and defense. Sens Command Control Commun Intell (C3I) Technol Homel Secur Homel Def IX 7666:766604–766611

- 54.
Jiang AX, Yin Z, Zhang C, Tambe M, Kraus S (2013) Game-theoretic randomization for security patrolling with dynamic execution uncertainty. In: Proceedings of the 2013 international conference on autonomous agents and multi-agent systems, pp 207–214

- 55.
Jiang L, Anantharam V, Walrand J (2011) How bad are selfish investments in network security? IEEE/ACM Trans Netw 19(2):549–560

- 56.
Jones MG (2013) Asymmetric information games and cyber security. Ph.D. dissertation, Georgia Institute of Technology

- 57.
Kahneman D, Tversky A (1979) Prospect theory: an analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica 47:263–291

- 58.
Kar D, Fang F, Delle Fave FM, Sintov N, Tambe M, Lyet A (2016) Comparing human behavior models in repeated Stackelberg security games: an extended study. Artif Intell 240:65–103

- 59.
Kar D, Fang F, Delle Fave F, Sintov N, Tambe M (2015) A game of thrones: when human behavior models compete in repeated Stackelberg security games. In: Proceedings of the 2015 international conference on autonomous agents and multiagent systems, pp 1381–1390

- 60.
Khouzani M, Sarkar S, Altman E (2012) Saddle-point strategies in malware attack. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 30(1):31–43

- 61.
Kiekintveld C, Jain M, Tsai J, Pita J, Ordóñez F, Tambe M (2009) Computing optimal randomized resource allocations for massive security games. In: Proceedings of the 8th international conference on autonomous agents and multiagent systems, vol 1, pp 689–696

- 62.
La QD, Quek TQ, Lee J (2016) A game theoretic model for enabling honeypots in IoT networks. In: IEEE international conference on communications (ICC), pp 1–6

- 63.
Laraki R, Sorin S (2015) Advances in zero-sum dynamic games. Handbook of game theory with economic applications 4:27–93

- 64.
Law YW, Alpcan T, Palaniswami M (2015) Security games for risk minimization in automatic generation control. IEEE Trans Power Syst 30(1):223–232

- 65.
Li Y, Shi L, Cheng P, Chen J, Quevedo DE (2015) Jamming attacks on remote state estimation in cyber-physical systems: a game-theoretic approach. IEEE Trans Autom Control 60(10):2831–2836

- 66.
Liang X, Xiao Y (2013) Game theory for network security. IEEE Commun Surv Tutor 15(1):472–486

- 67.
Li H, Lai L, Qiu RC (2011) A denial-of-service jamming game for remote state monitoring in smart grid. In: 45th annual conference on information sciences and systems (CISS). IEEE, pp 1–6

- 68.
Li L, Langbort C, Shamma J (2017) Computing security strategies in finite horizon repeated bayesian games. In: American control conference (ACC), pp 3664–3669

- 69.
Lin J, Liu P, Jing J (2012) Using signaling games to model the multi-step attack-defense scenarios on confidentiality. In: Proceedings of conference on decision and game theory for security (GameSec). Springer, pp 118–137

- 70.
Liu P, Zang W, Yu M (2005) Incentive-based modeling and inference of attacker intent, objectives, and strategies. ACM Trans Inf Syst Secur (TISSEC) 8(1):78–118

- 71.
Liu Y, Comaniciu C, Man H (2006) A Bayesian game approach for intrusion detection in wireless ad hoc networks. In: Proceedings of the 2006 workshop on game theory for communications and networks. ACM, p 4

- 72.
Luo Y, Szidarovszky F, Al-Nashif Y, Hariri S (2010) Game theory based network security. Executive Editor in Chief

- 73.
Lye K-W, Wing JM (2005) Game strategies in network security. Int J Inf Secur 4(1–2):71–86

- 74.
Ma J, Liu Y, Song L, Han Z (2015) Multiact dynamic game strategy for jamming attack in electricity market. IEEE Trans Smart Grid 6(5):2273–2282

- 75.
Mallik RK, Scholtz RA, Papavassilopoulos GP (2000) Analysis of an on–off jamming situation as a dynamic game. IEEE Trans Commun 48(8):1360–1373

- 76.
Manshaei MH, Zhu Q, Alpcan T, Başar T, Hubaux J-P (2013) Game theory meets network security and privacy. ACM Comput Surv (CSUR) 45(3):25:1–25:39

- 77.
Miao F, Pajic M, Pappas GJ (2013) Stochastic game approach for replay attack detection. In: IEEE 52nd annual conference on decision and control (CDC), pp 1854–1859

- 78.
Miura-Ko RA, Yolken B, Bambos N, Mitchell J (2008) Security investment games of interdependent organizations. In: 46th annual Allerton conference on communication, control, and computing. IEEE, pp 252–260

- 79.
Mohammadi A, Manshaei MH, Moghaddam MM, Zhu Q (2016) A game-theoretic analysis of deception over social networks using fake avatars. In: International conference on decision and game theory for security. Springer, pp 382–394

- 80.
Mukherjee A, Swindlehurst AL (2013) Jamming games in the mimo wiretap channel with an active eavesdropper. IEEE Trans Sig Process 61(1):82–91

- 81.
Mukhopadhyay A, Zhang C, Vorobeychik Y, Tambe M, Pence K, Speer P (2016) Optimal allocation of police patrol resources using a continuous-time crime model. In: Proceedings of international conference on decision and game theory for security (GameSec). Springer, pp 139–158

- 82.
Nadendla VSS, Akyol E, Langbort C, Başar T (2017) Strategic communication between prospect theoretic agents over a Gaussian test channel. In: Proceedings of MILCOM 2017, Baltimore, MD, Oct 23–25 (to appear)

- 83.
Naghizadeh P, Liu M (2016) Inter-temporal incentives in security information sharing agreements. In: Information theory and applications workshop (ITA). IEEE, pp 1–8

- 84.
Nguyen KC, Alpcan T, Başar T (2008) Fictitious play with imperfect observations for network intrusion detection. Preprints of the 13th international symposium dynamic games and applications (ISDGA), June 30–July 3, Wroclaw, Poland

- 85.
Nguyen KC, Alpcan T, Başar T (2009) Security games with incomplete information. In: IEEE international conference on communications, ICC’09, pp 1–6

- 86.
Nguyen KC, Alpcan T, Başar T (2009) Stochastic games for security in networks with interdependent nodes. In: International conference on game theory for networks. IEEE, pp 697–703

- 87.
Nguyen TH, Yadav A, An B, Tambe M, Boutilier C (2014) Regret-based optimization and preference elicitation for Stackelberg security games with uncertainty. In: AAAI, pp 756–762

- 88.
Noureddine MA, Fawaz A, Sanders WH, Başar T (2016) A game-theoretic approach to respond to attacker lateral movement. In: International conference on decision and game theory for security. Springer, pp 294–313

- 89.
Ouyang Y, Tavafoghi H, Teneketzis D (2017) Dynamic games with asymmetric information: common information based perfect bayesian equilibria and sequential decomposition. IEEE Trans Autom Control 62(1):222–237

- 90.
Patcha A, Park J-M (2006) A game theoretic formulation for intrusion detection in mobile ad hoc networks. IJ Netw Secur 2(2):131–137

- 91.
Pawlick J, Zhu Q (2015) Deception by design: evidence-based signaling games for network defense. arXiv preprint arXiv:1503.05458

- 92.
Pita J, Tambe M, Kiekintveld C, Cullen S, Steigerwald E (2011) GUARDS: game theoretic security allocation on a national scale. In: The 10th international conference on autonomous agents and multiagent systems, vol 1, pp 37–44

- 93.
Ramachandran K, Stefanova Z (2016) Dynamic game theories in cyber security. In: Proceedings of dynamic systems and applications, pp 1–8

- 94.
Raya M, Manshaei MH, Félegyházi M, Hubaux J-P (2008) Revocation games in ephemeral networks. In: Proceedings of the 15th ACM conference on computer and communications security, pp 199–210

- 95.
Raya M, Shokri R, Hubaux J-P (2010) “On the tradeoff between trust and privacy in wireless ad hoc networks. In: Proceedings of the third ACM conference on wireless network security, pp 75–80

- 96.
Roy S, Ellis C, Shiva S, Dasgupta D, Shandilya V, Wu Q (2010) A survey of game theory as applied to network security. In: 43rd Hawaii international conference on system sciences (HICSS). IEEE, pp 1–10

- 97.
Saad W, Zhou X, Maham B, Başar T, Poor HV (2012) Tree formation with physical layer security considerations in wireless multi-hop networks. IEEE Trans Wirel Commun 11(11):3980–3991

- 98.
Sagduyu YE, Berry RA, Ephremides A (2011) Jamming games in wireless networks with incomplete information. IEEE Commun Mag, 49(8)

- 99.
Sagduyu YE, Berry R, Ephremides A (2009) MAC games for distributed wireless network security with incomplete information of selfish and malicious user types. In: Proceedings of international conference on game theory for networks. IEEE, pp 130–139

- 100.
Sallhammar K, Helvik BE, Knapskog SJ (2006) On stochastic modeling for integrated security and dependability evaluation. JNW 1(5):31–42

- 101.
Sallhammar K, Knapskog SJ, Helvik BE (2005) Using stochastic game theory to compute the expected behavior of attackers. In: 2005 symposium on applications and the internet workshops, saint workshops. IEEE, pp 102–105

- 102.
Sanjab A, Saad W, Başar T (2017) Prospect theory for enhanced cyber-physical security of drone delivery systems: a network interdiction game. In: Proceedings of IEEE ICC 2017 communication and information security symposium (CISS 2017), Paris, France, May 21–25

- 103.
Shelar D, Amin S (2017) Security assessment of electricity distribution networks under DER node compromises. IEEE Trans Control Netw Syst 4(1):23–36

- 104.
Shen D, Chen G, Blasch E, Tadda G (2007) Adaptive Markov game theoretic data fusion approach for cyber network defense. In: Military communications conference (MILCOM). IEEE, pp 1–7

- 105.
Sorin S (2011) Zero-sum repeated games: recent advances and new links with differential games. Dynamic games and applications 1(1):172–207

- 106.
Trejo KK, Clempner JB, Poznyak AS (2016) Adapting strategies to dynamic environments in controllable Stackelberg security games. In: Proceedings of IEEE 55th conference on decision and control (CDC), pp 5484–5489

- 107.
Truong A, Etesami SR, Etesami J, Kiyavash N (2018) Optimal attack strategies against predictors-learning from expert advice. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security

- 108.
Wang S, Shroff N (2017) Security game with non-additive utilities and multiple attacker resources. Proc ACM Measur Anal Comput Syst 1(1):13

- 109.
Wang Y, Wang Y, Liu J, Huang Z, Xie P (2016) A survey of game theoretic methods for cyber security. In: IEEE international conference on data science in cyberspace (DSC), pp 631–636

- 110.
Xiaolin C, Xiaobin T, Yong Z, Hongsheng X (2008) A Markov game theory-based risk assessment model for network information system. In: International conference on computer science and software engineering, vol 3. IEEE, pp 1057–1061

- 111.
Zhang N, Yu W, Fu X, Das SK (2010) gPath: a game-theoretic path selection algorithm to protect Tors anonymity. In: Proceedings of international conference on decision and game theory for security (GameSec). Springer, pp 58–71

- 112.
Zheng J, Castañón DA (2012) Dynamic network interdiction games with imperfect information and deception. In: IEEE 51st annual conference on decision and control (CDC), pp 7758–7763

- 113.
Zheng J, Castanón DA (2012) Stochastic dynamic network interdiction games. In: Proceedings of IEEE American control conference (ACC), pp 1838–1844

- 114.
Zhou Z, Bambos N, Glynn P (2016) Dynamics on linear influence network games under stochastic environments. In: Proceedings of international conference on decision and game theory for security (GameSec). Springer, pp 114–126

- 115.
Zhu Q, Başar T (2015) Game-theoretic methods for robustness, security, and resilience of cyberphysical control systems: games-in-games principle for optimal cross-layer resilient control systems. IEEE Control Syst 35(1):46–65

- 116.
Zhu Q, Fung C, Boutaba R, Başar T (2012) GUIDEX: a game-theoretic incentive-based mechanism for intrusion detection networks. IEEE J Select Areas Commun (JSAC) Spec Iss Econ Commun Netw Syst (SI-NetEcon) 30(11):2220–2230

- 117.
Zhu Q, Başar T (2009) Dynamic policy-based IDS configuration. In: Proceedings of the 48th IEEE conference on decision and control (CDC), pp 8600–8605

- 118.
Zhu Q, Başar T (2012) A dynamic game-theoretic approach to resilient control system design for cascading failures. In: Proceedings of the 1st international conference on high confidence networked systems. ACM, pp 41–46

- 119.
Zhu Q, Clark A, Poovendran R, Başar T (2012) Deceptive routing games. In: IEEE 51st annual conference on decision and control (CDC), pp 2704–2711

- 120.
Zhu Q, Tembine H, Başar T (2010) Heterogeneous learning in zero-sum stochastic games with incomplete information. In: 49th IEEE conference on decision and control (CDC), pp 219–224

- 121.
Zhu Q, Tembine H, Başar T (2010) Network security configurations: a nonzero-sum stochastic game approach. In: IEEE American control conference (ACC), pp 1059–1064

- 122.
Zhu Q, Tembine H, Başar T (2013) Hybrid learning in stochastic games and its applications in network security. In: Lewis FL, Liu D (eds) Reinforcement Learning and Approximate Dynamic Programming for Feedback Control, Series on Computational Intelligence, IEEE Press/Wiley, chapter 14, pp 305–329

- 123.
Zonouz SA, Khurana H, Sanders WH, Yardley TM (2014) RRE: a game-theoretic intrusion response and recovery engine. IEEE Trans Parallel Distrib Syst 25(2):395–406

## Author information

### Affiliations

### Corresponding author

## Additional information

### Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

The research leading to this paper was supported in part by ONR MURI Grant N00014-16-1-2710 and in part by ARO Grant W911NF-16-1-0485.

## Rights and permissions

## About this article

### Cite this article

Etesami, S.R., Başar, T. Dynamic Games in Cyber-Physical Security: An Overview.
*Dyn Games Appl* **9, **884–913 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13235-018-00291-y

Published:

Issue Date:

### Keywords

- Dynamic game
- Cyber-physical security
- Network security
- Mechanism design
- Learning
- Security game