Skip to main content

Enhanced grating formation speed and amplitude of photorefractive device modified with single-walled carbon nanotubes


We report on a fast and efficient polymeric photorefractive (PR) device by using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) on indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. In presence of SWCNTs, the magnitudes of photocurrent, space charge field, and refractive index modulation increased 56.9%, 20.3%, and 22.1%, respectively, due to enhanced charge separation and facilitative charge transport. The PR grating buildup speed of PR device with SWCNTs layers was three-and-a-half times faster than that without SWCNTs layers. The SWCNTs with layer structure provided an efficient electron-transfer matrix.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. M. P. Georges, V. S. Scauflaire, and P. C. Lemaire, Trends Opt. Photon., 62, 63 (2001).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. A. A. Kamshilin, S. Liu, H. Tuovinen, V. V. Prokofiev, and T. Jaaskelainen, Opt. Lett., 19, 907 (1994).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. W.-J. Joo and N. Kim, Polym. J. (Tokyo JT Japan), 36, 674 (2004).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. J.-W. Oh, I. K. Moon, and N. Kim, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A: Chem., 201, 222 (2009).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. L. Sheeney-Haj-Ichia, B. Basnar, and I. Willner, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed., 44, 78 (2005).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. T. Hasobe, S. Fukuzumi, and P. V. Kamat, J. Phys. Chem. B, 110, 25477 (2006).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. W. Wu, J. Li, L. Liu, L. Yanga, Z.-X. Guo, L. Dai, and D. Zhu, Chem. Phys. Lett., 364, 196 (2002).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. A. D. Grishina, L. Y. Pereshivko, T. V. Krivenko, V. V. Savel’ev, L. Licea-Jiménez, R. W. Rychwalski, and A. V. Vannikov, High Energy Chem., 42, 543 (2008).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. O. Köysal, M. Okutan, S. E. San, R. Dabrowski, and F. N. Ecevit, Mater. Chem. Phys., 109, 253 (2008).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. H. Chun, I. K. Moon, D.-H. Shin, and N. Kim, Chem. Mater., 13, 2813 (2001).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. J.-W. Oh and N. Kim, Chem. Phys. Lett., 460, 482 (2009).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. J.-W. Oh, C. Lee, and N. Kim, J. Appl. Phys., 104, 073709 (2008).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. J. S. Schildkraut, Appl. Phys. Lett., 58, 340 (1991).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. W. J. Joo, N. J. Kim, H. Chun, I. K. Moon, and N. Kim, J. Appl. Phys., 91, 6471 (2002).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. I. K. Moon, D. Y. Kim, and N. Kim, Aust. J. Chem., 62, 1655 (2009).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. W. Lee, J. Lee, S.-H. Lee, J. Chang, W. Yi, and S.-H. Han, J. Phys. Chem. C, 111, 9100 (2007).

    Google Scholar 

  17. H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

    Google Scholar 

  18. W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci., 27, 585 (1997).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. M. A. Díaz-García, D. Wright, B. Smith, E. Glazer, and W. E. Moerner, Chem. Mater., 11, 1784 (1999).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. D. Wright, M. A. Díaz-García, J. D. Casperson, M. DeClue, W. E. Moerner, and R. J. Twieg, Appl. Phys. Lett., 73, 1490 (1998).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Jin-Woo Oh or Nakjoong Kim.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Oh, JW., Choi, J. & Kim, N. Enhanced grating formation speed and amplitude of photorefractive device modified with single-walled carbon nanotubes. Macromol. Res. 21, 327–330 (2013).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)
  • grating buildup speed
  • space charge field
  • photocurrent.