Fungal Diversity

, Volume 84, Issue 1, pp 25–41 | Cite as

An updated phylogeny of Sordariomycetes based on phylogenetic and molecular clock evidence

  • Sinang Hongsanan
  • Sajeewa S. N. Maharachchikumbura
  • Kevin D. Hyde
  • Milan C. Samarakoon
  • Rajesh Jeewon
  • Qi Zhao
  • Abdullah M. Al-Sadi
  • Ali H. Bahkali


The previous phylogenies of Sordariomycetes by M.E. Barr, O.E. Eriksson and D.L. Hawksworth, and T. Lumbsch and S. Huhndorf, were mainly based on morphology and thus were somewhat subjective. Later outlines by T. Lumbsch and S. Huhndorf, and Maharachchikumbura and co-authors, took into account phylogenetic evidence. However, even these phylogenetic driven arrangements for Sordariomycetes, were somewhat subjective, as the arrangements in trees depended on many variables, such as number of taxa, different gene regions and methods used in the analyses. What is needed is extra evidence to help standardize ranking in the fungi. Estimation of divergence times using molecular clock methods has been proposed for providing additional rational for higher ranking of taxa. Thus, in Sordariomycetes, a divergence period (i.e. 200–300 MYA) can be used as criteria to judge when a group of related taxa evolved and what rank they should be given. In this paper, we provide an updated classification of accepted subclasses, orders of Sordariomycetes and use divergence times to provide additional evidence to stabilize ranking of taxa in the class. We point out and discuss discrepancies where the phylogenetic tree conflicts with the molecular clock.


Class Classification Divergence times Phylogenetics Ranking 



K.D. Hyde thanks the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Project Number 2013T2S0030, for the award of Visiting Professorship for Senior International Scientists at Kunming Institute of Botany. The authors extend their appreciation to the International Scientific Partnership Program ISPP at King Saud University for funding this research work through ISPP# 0089. K.D. Hyde would like to thank the Thailand Research Fund (TRF) Grant No. RSA5980068 entitled Biodiversity, phylogeny and role of fungal endophytes on above parts of Rhizophora apiculata and Nypa fruticans and National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT) entitled Diseases of mangrove trees and maintenance of good forestry practice (Grant Number: 60201000201). The authors would like to thank NRCT for the grant to study the Biodiversity, phylogeny and role of fungal endophytes of Pandanaceae (Grant No.: 592010200112).

Supplementary material

13225_2017_384_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (33 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 33 kb)


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Copyright information

© School of Science 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sinang Hongsanan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sajeewa S. N. Maharachchikumbura
    • 3
  • Kevin D. Hyde
    • 1
    • 2
  • Milan C. Samarakoon
    • 2
  • Rajesh Jeewon
    • 4
  • Qi Zhao
    • 1
  • Abdullah M. Al-Sadi
    • 3
  • Ali H. Bahkali
    • 5
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of BotanyChinese Academy of SciencesKunmingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Center of Excellence in Fingal ResearchMae Fah Luang UniversityChiang RaiThailand
  3. 3.Department of Crop Sciences, College of Agricultural and Marine SciencesSultan Qaboos UniversityAl-KhodOman
  4. 4.Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of MauritiusReduitMauritius
  5. 5.Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of ScienceKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

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