Turbo-taxonomy to assemble a megadiverse lichen genus: seventy new species of Cora (Basidiomycota: Agaricales: Hygrophoraceae), honouring David Leslie Hawksworth’s seventieth birthday

Abstract

Following a large-scale phylogenetic study of the lichenized genus Cora (Basidiomycota: Agaricales: Hygrophoraceae), we formally describe 70 new species, honouring the seventieth birthday of David Leslie Hawksworth, one of the preeminent figures in mycology and lichenology in the past 50 years. Based on an updated phylogeny using the ITS fungal barcoding locus, we now recognize 189 taxa in a genus that until recently was considered to represent a single species; including this contribution, 92 of these are formally recognized, including five taxa based on historical names or collections that have not been sequenced. Species of Cora can be recognized by a combination of morphological (size, colour, lobe configuration, surface hairs, hymenophore size and shape), anatomical (thallus thickness, cortex structure, photobiont type, hyphal papillae), and ecogeographical features (substrate, habitat, distribution), and a keytable allowing the identification of all accepted taxa is provided. The new species are: Cora accipiter Moncada, Madriñán & Lücking spec. nov., C. applanata Moncada, Soto-Medina & Lücking spec. nov., C. arachnodavidea Moncada, Dal Forno & Lücking spec. nov., C. arborescens Dal Forno, Chaves & Lücking spec. nov., C. arcabucana Moncada, C. Rodríguez & Lücking spec. nov., C. aturucoa Lücking, Moncada & C. Vargas spec. nov., C. auriculeslia Moncada, Yánez-Ayabaca & Lücking spec. nov., C. barbifera Moncada, Patiño & Lücking spec. nov., C. boleslia Lücking, E. Morales & Dal Forno spec. nov., C. caliginosa Holgado, Rivas Plata & Perlmutter spec. nov., C. campestris Dal Forno, Eliasaro & Spielmann spec. nov., C. canari Nugra, Dal Forno & Lücking spec. nov., C. caraana Lücking, Martins & Lucheta spec. nov., C. casasolana Moncada, R.-E. Pérez & Lücking spec. nov., C. caucensis Moncada, M. Gut. & Lücking spec. nov., C. celestinoa Moncada, Cabrera-Amaya & Lücking spec. nov., C. comaltepeca Moncada, R.-E. Pérez & Herrera-Camp. spec. nov., C. corani Lücking, E. Morales & Dal Forno spec. nov., C. corelleslia Moncada, A. Suárez-Corredor & Lücking spec. nov., C. crispoleslia Moncada, J. Molina & Lücking spec. nov., C. cuzcoensis Holgado, Rivas Plata & Perlmutter spec. nov., C. dalehana Moncada, Madriñán & Lücking spec. nov., C. davibogotana Lücking, Moncada & Coca spec. nov., C. davicrinita Moncada, Madriñán & Lücking spec. nov., C. davidia Moncada, L. Vargas & Lücking spec. nov., C. dewisanti Moncada, A. Suárez-Corredor & Lücking spec. nov., C. dulcis Moncada, R.-E. Pérez & Lücking spec. nov., C. elephas Lücking, Moncada & L. Vargas spec. nov., C. fuscodavidiana Lücking, Moncada & L. Vargas spec. nov., C. garagoa Simijaca, Moncada & Lücking spec. nov., C. gigantea Lücking, Moncada & Coca spec. nov., C. gomeziana Dal Forno, Chaves & Lücking spec. nov., C. guajalitensis Lücking, Robayo & Dal Forno spec. nov., C. hafecesweorthensis Moncada, Lücking & R. Peláez spec. nov., C. haledana Dal Forno, Chaves & Lücking spec. nov., C. hawksworthiana Dal Forno, P. Nelson & Lücking spec. nov., C. hochesuordensis Lücking, E. Morales & Dal Forno spec. nov., C. hymenocarpa Lücking, Chaves & Lawrey spec. nov., C. imi Lücking, Chaves & Lawrey spec. nov., C. itabaiana Dal Forno, Aptroot & M. Cáceres spec. nov., C. leslactuca Lücking, Moncada & R. Peláez spec. nov., C. maxima Wilk, Dal Forno & Lücking spec. nov., C. minutula Lücking, Moncada & Yánez-Ayabaca spec. nov., C. palaeotropica Weerakoon, Aptroot & Lücking spec. nov., C. palustris Dal Forno, Chaves & Lücking spec. nov., C. parabovei Dal Forno, Kukwa & Lücking spec. nov., C. paraciferrii Lücking, Moncada & J.E. Hern. spec. nov., C. paraminor Dal Forno, Chaves & Lücking spec. nov., C. pastorum Moncada, Patiño & Lücking spec. nov., C. pichinchensis Paredes, Jonitz & Dal Forno spec. nov., C. pikynasa J.-M. Torres, Moncada & Lücking spec. nov., C. pseudobovei Wilk, Dal Forno & Lücking spec. nov., C. pseudocorani Lücking, E. Morales & Dal Forno spec. nov., C. putumayensis L.J. Arias, Moncada & Lücking spec. nov., C. quillacinga Moncada, F. Ortega & Lücking spec. nov., C. rothesiorum Moncada, Madriñán & Lücking spec. nov., C. rubrosanguinea Nugra, Moncada & Lücking spec. nov., C. santacruzensis Dal Forno, Bungartz & Yánez-Ayabaca, spec. nov., C. schizophylloides Moncada, C. Rodríguez & Lücking spec. nov., C. smaragdina Lücking, Rivas Plata & Chaves spec. nov., C. soredavidia Dal Forno, Marcelli & Lücking spec. nov., C. subdavicrinita Moncada, J. Molina & Lücking spec. nov., C. suturifera Nugra, Besal & Lücking spec. nov., C. terrestris Dal Forno, Chaves & Lücking spec. nov., C. terricoleslia Wilk, Dal Forno & Lücking spec. nov., C. udebeceana Moncada, R. Peláez & Lücking spec. nov., C. urceolata Moncada, Coca & Lücking spec. nov., C. verjonensis Lücking, Moncada & Dal Forno spec. nov., C. viliewoa Lücking, Chaves & Soto-Medina spec. nov., and C. yukiboa Mercado-Díaz, Moncada & Lücking spec. nov. Furthermore, the taxonomic status of the recently described or recognized species C. arachnoidea, C. aspera, C. ciferrii, and C. reticulifera, is revised.

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Acknowledgments

This study was partially supported by three grants from the National Science Foundation: TICOLICHENThe Costa Rican Lichen Biodiversity Inventory (DEB 0206125 to The Field Museum; PI Robert Lücking), Neotropical Epiphytic MicrolichensAn Innovative Inventory of a Highly Diverse yet Little Known Group of Symbiotic Organisms (DEB 0715660 to The Field Museum; PI R. Lücking), and Phylogenetic Diversity of Mycobionts and Photobionts in the Cyanolichen Genus Dictyonema, with Emphasis on the Neotropics and the Galapagos Islands (DEB 0841405 to George Mason University; PI J. Lawrey; Co-PIs: R. Lücking, P. Gillevet). The Verein der Freunde des Botanischen Gartens und Botanischen Museums Berlin-Dahlem e.V. (https://www.bgbm.org/de/BGBM/freunde/index.html) supported molecular sequencing work for specimens collected as part of the Pilotprojekt Kooperation mit dem Botanischen Garten Bogotá (BMBF, see below). The Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas, Bogotá, is thanked for the support to the lichen herbarium and the curatorial work of the UDBC collections. The Jardín Botánico de Bogotá José Celestino Mutis organized field trips to Sumapaz, Peña Blanca, and Pasquilla (Bogotá), by agreement with the Botanical Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin, partially financed through the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF; Pilotprojekt Kooperation mit dem Botanischen Garten Bogotá; Förderkennzeichen: 01DN13030). The Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, provided logistic support for field work in Chingaza. Félix Fernandez, owner of El Secreto Private Reserve in Garagoa, Colombia, is thanked for providing access to the area. The Galapagos Lichen Inventory acknowledges support by successive science directors of the Charles Darwin Foundation (Alan Tye, Mark Gardener, Rodolfo Martinez, Ulf Härdter, and Noëmi d’Ozouville), and executive director Arturo Izurieta. Frank Bungartz and collaborators are further indebted to the Directorate of the Galapagos National Park (particular Galo Quezada and Victor Carrión, granting specimen export permits). This publication is contribution no. 2145 of the Charles Darwin Foundation for the Galapagos Islands. The Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) is thanked for research grants and field trip fundings (Processos 311706/2012-6, 401186/2014-8, and CNPq-Sisbiota 563342/2010-2) to M. Cáceres and a PVE grant (Processo 314570/2014-4) to M. Cáceres and R. Lücking. Research by G. Weerakoon was funded by the National Geographic Society and Dilmah Conservation, and G. Weerakoon would like to thank Thorsten Lumbsch, Pat Wolseley, Omal Arachchige, Dushantha Wasala and Dulan Vidanapathirana for further support. Research by K. Wilk was funded by the W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, through a statutory fund. We are indebted to the Galápagos National Park, especially its technical director, Washington Tapia, for support and specimen export permits. Material from Costa Rica was also collected during two lichen courses of the Organization for Tropical Studies (OTS). Paul M. Kirk assisted with batch registration of the new species on Index Fungorum and Subashini C. Jayasiri with batch registration on Faces of Fungi.

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Lücking, R., Forno, M.D., Moncada, B. et al. Turbo-taxonomy to assemble a megadiverse lichen genus: seventy new species of Cora (Basidiomycota: Agaricales: Hygrophoraceae), honouring David Leslie Hawksworth’s seventieth birthday. Fungal Diversity 84, 139–207 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-016-0374-9

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