Fungal Diversity

, Volume 76, Issue 1, pp 75–96 | Cite as

Extremotolerant rock inhabiting black fungi from Italian monumental sites

  • D. Isola
  • L. Zucconi
  • S. Onofri
  • G. Caneva
  • G. S. de Hoog
  • L. SelbmannEmail author


A wide sampling for isolating highly destructive and extremotolerant black fungi was performed from Italian monuments in selected historical sites which include the “Cortile della Pigna”, Vatican Museum and the St Peter colonnade (Vatican City State), the monumental cemetery of Bonaria (Cagliari), and other monuments in the city of Cagliari. Thirty out of seventy-four strains isolated were identified basing on ITS Blastn comparison. Based on multilocus phylogeny and morphological data, one new genus and species Lithophila guttulata, five new species Knufia marmoricola, K. vaticanii, K. karalitana, K. mediterranea and Exophiala bonariae, order Chaetothyriales and one new genus and species, Saxophila tyrrhenica, and two new species Vermiconia calcicola and Devriesia sardiniae, order Capnodiales, were proposed. Ecological considerations are put forward.


Extremotolerance Monuments Microcolonial fungi Multilocus phylogeny 



The authors thank the Italian National Program for Antarctic Researches (PNRA) and the Italian National Antarctic Museum “Felice Ippolito” for funding the Culture Collection of Fungi From Extreme Environments (CCFEE). The Italian “Ordine Nazionale dei Biologi” is acknowledged for funding the project “Fungal deteriogens and stone monuments”. Professor Paola Meloni, Georgia Toreno and the laboratory “Colle di Bonaria”- University of Cagliari are acknowledged for kind collaboration during sampling. Superintendence of Heritage Landscape, Historical, Anthropological Heritage of Cagliari and Oristano, the district of Cagliari – Cemetery direction –, Prof. Antonio Paolucci Director of the Vatican Museum, Prof. Ulderico Santamaria and Mattia Tomassini Barbarossa, owner of Boyl Palace, are acknowledged for giving permission for sampling.


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© School of Science 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Isola
    • 1
  • L. Zucconi
    • 1
  • S. Onofri
    • 1
  • G. Caneva
    • 2
  • G. S. de Hoog
    • 3
  • L. Selbmann
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.DEBUniversità degli Studi della TusciaViterboItaly
  2. 2.Department of SciencesUniversità Roma TreRomeItaly
  3. 3.CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity CentreUtrechtThe Netherlands

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