Advertisement

Fungal Diversity

, Volume 81, Issue 1, pp 189–212 | Cite as

Porcini mushrooms (Boletus sect. Boletus) from China

  • Yang-Yang Cui
  • Bang Feng
  • Gang Wu
  • Jianping Xu
  • Zhu L. YangEmail author
Article

Abstract

Porcini mushrooms (Boletus sect. Boletus) have both economic and ecological importance. Recent molecular phylogenetic study has uncovered rich species diversity of this group of fungi from China. In this study, the Chinese porcini were characterized by both morphological and molecular phylogenetic evidence. 15 species were recognized, including nine new species, namely B. botryoides, B. fagacicola, B. griseiceps, B. monilifer, B. sinoedulis, B. subviolaceofuscus, B. tylopilopsis, B. umbrinipileus and B. viscidiceps. Three previously described species, viz. B. bainiugan, B. meiweiniuganjun and B. shiyong, were revised, and B. meiweiniuganjun is treated as a synonym of B. bainiugan. A key to the Chinese porcini mushrooms was provided.

Keywords

Boletes Taxonomy Morphology Phylogeny Wild edible mushrooms 

Notes

Aknowledgments

The authors are very grateful to the following colleagues for providing valuable specimens and images for this study, they are Dr. Zai-Wei Ge, Dr. Yan-Chun Li, Mr. Qi Zhao, Miss Li-Hong Han, Miss Yan-Jia Hao, Miss Jiao Qin, Mr. Kuan Zhao, Mr. Xiao-Bin Liu and Miss Shu Yao from Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Dr. Nian-Kai Zeng from Hainan Medical University. Prof. Dr. G. Kost (Department of Biology, University of Marburg, Germany) is thanked for his hospitality and arrangements during Yang’s visits to Marburg in 2006 and 2007. Dr. Metteo Gelardi is thanked for providing samples from Italy and for informative discussion about the macromorphological identifications of European Boletus species. Thanks are also due to the anonymous reviewers for their valuable suggestions and comments to the improvement of this paper. This work is supported by the Funds for International Cooperation and Exchange of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31210103919), the National Basic Research Program of China (2014CB138305) and the CAS/SAFEA International Partnership Program for Creative Research Teams.

References

  1. Alessio C (1985) Boletus Dill. ex L. (senso lato). Libreia editrice Biella Giovanna, SaronnoGoogle Scholar
  2. Arora D (2008) California porcini: three new taxa, observations on their harvest, and the tragedy of no commons. Econ Bot 62:356–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berkeley MJ (1852) Decades of fungi, decades XXXIX., XL. Sikkim and Khassya Fungi. Hooker's J Bot Kew Gard Misc 4:130–142Google Scholar
  4. Bessette AE, Roody WC, Bessette AR (2000) North American Boletes: a color guide to the fleshy pored mushrooms. Syracuse University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Beugelsdijk DCM, van der Linde S, Zuccarello GC, den Bakker HC, Draisma SGA, Noordeloos ME (2008) A phylogenetic study of Boletus section Boletus in Europe. Persoonia 20:1–7CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Binder M, Hibbett DS (2006) Molecular systematics and biological diversification of Boletales. Mycologia 98:971–981CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Both EE (1993) The boletes of North America, a compendium. Buffalo Museum of Science, BuffaloGoogle Scholar
  8. Breitenbach J, Kränzlin F (1991) Pilze der Schweiz. Band 3. Verlag Mykologia, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  9. Chiu WF (1948) The boletes of Yunnan. Mycologia 40:199–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chiu WF (1957) Atlas of the Yunnan Bolets. Science Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  11. Coker WC, Beers AH (1943) The Boletaceae of North Carolina. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel HillGoogle Scholar
  12. Corner EJH (1972) Boletus in Malaysia. Botanic Gardens, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  13. Courtecuisse R, Duhem B (1995) Mushrooms & toadstools of Britain and Europe. Harper Collins, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. Dentinger BT (2013) Nomenclatural novelties: Bryn Dentinger. Index Fungorum no. 29:1. http://www.indexfungorum.org/Publications/Index%20Fungorum%20no.29.pdf. Accessed 12 Oct 2013
  15. Dentinger BT, Suz LM (2014) What’s for dinner? Undescribed species of porcini in a commercial packet. Peer J 2, e570CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Dentinger BT, Ammirati JF, Both EE, Desjardin DE, Halling RE, Henkel TW, Moreau PA, Nagasawa E, Soytong K, Taylor AF, Walting R, Moncalco JM, McLaughlin DJ (2010) Molecular phylogenetics of porcini mushrooms (Boletus section Boletus). Mol Phylogenet Evol 57:1276–1292CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Feng B, Xu JP, Wu G, Zeng NK, Li YC, Tolgor B, Kost GW, Yang ZL (2012) DNA sequence analyses reveal abundant diversity, endemism and evidence for Asian origin of the porcini mushrooms. PLoS One 7, e37567CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Gilbert EJ (1931) Les bolets. Librairie E. Le François, ParisGoogle Scholar
  19. Halling RE, Mueller GM (1999) New boletes from Costa Rica. Mycologia 91:893–899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Halling RE, Desjardin DE, Fechner N, Arora D, Soyotng K, Dentinger BTM (2014) New porcini (Boletus sect. Boletus) from Australia and Thailand. Mycologia 106:830–834CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Hongo T (1973) Enumeration of the Hygrophoraceae, Boletaceae and Strobilomycetaceae. Bull Natl Sci Mus Tokyo 16:537–557Google Scholar
  22. Horak E (1968) Synopsis Generum Agaricalium (Die Gattungstypen der Agaricales). Beitr Kryptog Schweiz 13:1–741Google Scholar
  23. Horak E (1980) Indian Boletales and Agaricales. Revision and new taxa. Sydowia 33:88–110Google Scholar
  24. Horak E (2005) Röhrlinge und Blätterpilze in Europa. Elsevier GmbH, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  25. Horak E (2011) Revision of Malaysian species of Boletales s.l. (Basidiomycota) described by EJH Corner (1972, 1974). Malay For Rec 51:1–283Google Scholar
  26. Kornerup A, Wanscher JH (1981) Taschenlexikon der Farben, 3rd edn. Muster-Schmidt, VerlagGoogle Scholar
  27. Li TH, Song B (2003) Bolete species known from China. Guizhou Sci 21:78–86Google Scholar
  28. Li YC, Feng B, Yang ZL (2011) Zangia, a new genus of Boletaceae supported by molecular and morphological evidence. Fungal Divers 49:125–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Li YC, Ortiz-Santana B, Zeng NK, Feng B, Yang ZL (2014) Molecular phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Veloporphyrellus. Mycologia 106:291–306CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Linnaeus C (1753) Species plantarum vol. 2. Laurentius Salvius, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  31. Nagasawa E (1994) A new species of Boletus Sect. Boletus from Japan. Proc Jpn Acad Ser B 70:10–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nuhn ME, Binder M, Taylor AF, Halling RE, Hibbett DS (2013) Phylogenetic overview of the Boletineae. Fungal Biol 117:479–511CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Ortiz-Santana B, Lodge DJ, Baroni TJ, Both EE (2007) Boletes from Belize and the Dominican Republic. Fungal Divers 27:247–416Google Scholar
  34. Patoiullard N, Baker CF (1918) Some Singapore Boletinae. J Straits Branch R Asiat Soc 78:67–72Google Scholar
  35. Peck CH (1888) Report of the botanist,1887. Ann Rep N Y St Mus Nat Hist 41:76Google Scholar
  36. Peck CH (1905) Report of the state botanist, 1904. Bull N Y St Mus 94:48Google Scholar
  37. Simonini G, Floriani M, Binder M, Besl H (2001) Two close extraeuropean boletes: Boletus violaceofuscus and Boletus separans. Micol Vegetazione Mediterranea 16:148–170Google Scholar
  38. Singer R (1947) The Boletineae of Florida with notes on extralimital species III. The Boletoideae of Florida. Am Midl Nat 37:1–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Singer R (1965) Die Pilze Mitteleuropas. Band V: die Röhrlinge Teil I: die Boletaceae (ohne Boletoideae). Verlag Julius Klinkhardt, Bad HeilbrunnGoogle Scholar
  40. Singer R (1967) Die Pilze Mitteleuropas. Band VI: Die Röhrlinge Teil II: die Boletoideae und Strobilomycetaceae. Verlag Julius Klinkhardt, Bad HeilbrunnGoogle Scholar
  41. Singer R (1986) The agaricales in modern taxonomy, 4th edn. Koeltz Scientific Books, KoenigsteinGoogle Scholar
  42. Sitta N, Davoli P (2012) Edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms: international markets and regulations. Edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms. Springer, Berlin, pp 355–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sitta N, Floriani M (2008) Nationalization and globalization trends in the wild mushroom commerce of Italy with emphasis on porcini (Boletus edulis and allied species). Econ Bot 62:307–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sitta N, Togni N, Zotti M (2007) Guida alla conoscenza e all’analisi dei funghi secchi. In: AA.VV. (II ediz.), Parliamo di funghi II—manuale per i Corsi di Formazione per il rilascio dell’attestato di Micologo. Trento, 237–318Google Scholar
  45. Smith AH, Thiers HD (1971) The boletes of Michigan. University of Michigan Press, Ann ArborGoogle Scholar
  46. Snell WH, Dick EA (1970) The boleti of northeastern North America. Cramer, VaduzGoogle Scholar
  47. Thiers HD (1976) Boletes of the southwestern United States. Mycotaxon 3(2):261–273Google Scholar
  48. Wang QB, Yao YJ (2005) Boletus reticuloceps, a new combination for Aureoboletus reticuloceps. Sydowia 57:131–136Google Scholar
  49. Watling R (1970) British fungus flora Volume I: Boletaceae, Gomphidiaceae, Paxillaceae. Royal Botanic Garden, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  50. Wu G, Feng B, Xu J, Zhu XT, Li YC, Zeng NK, Hosen MI, Yang ZL (2014) Molecular phylogenetic analyses redefine seven major clades and reveal 22 new generic clades in the fungal family Boletaceae. Fungal Divers 69:93–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wu G, Li YC, Zhao K, Feng B, Halling RE, Bessette AE, Bessette AR, Yang ZL (2015) Four new genera of the fungal family Boletaceae. Fungal Divers (in press)Google Scholar
  52. Ying JZ, Zhao JD, Mao XL, Ma QM, Xu LW, Zong YC (1982) Edible mushrooms. Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  53. Zang M (2006) Flora fungorum sinicorum: Boletaceae (I). Science Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  54. Zang M, Yuan M, Gong M (1993) Notes on and additions to Chinese members of the Boletales. Acta Mycol Sin 12:275–282Google Scholar
  55. Zeng NK, Tang LP, Li YC, Tolgor B, Zhao Q, Yang ZL (2013) The genus Phylloporus (Boletaceae, Boletales) from China: morphological and multilocus DNA sequence analyses. Fungal Divers 58:73–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zeng NK, Liang ZQ, Yang ZL (2014) Boletus orientialbus, a new species with white basidioma from subtropical China. Mycoscience 55:159–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© School of Science 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yang-Yang Cui
    • 1
    • 3
  • Bang Feng
    • 1
  • Gang Wu
    • 1
  • Jianping Xu
    • 2
  • Zhu L. Yang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of BotanyChinese Academy of SciencesKunming 650201China
  2. 2.Department of BiologyMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  3. 3.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijing 100049China

Personalised recommendations