Fungal Diversity

, Volume 56, Issue 1, pp 31–47 | Cite as

Prized edible Asian mushrooms: ecology, conservation and sustainability

  • Peter E. Mortimer
  • Samantha C. Karunarathna
  • Qiaohong Li
  • Heng Gui
  • Xueqing Yang
  • Xuefei Yang
  • Jun He
  • Lei Ye
  • Jiayu Guo
  • Huili Li
  • Phongeun Sysouphanthong
  • Dequn Zhou
  • Jianchu XuEmail author
  • Kevin D. HydeEmail author


Mushrooms can be found in forests worldwide and have long been exploited as resources in developed economies because of their important agro-industrial, medicinal and commercial uses. For less developed countries, such as those within the Greater Mekong Subregion, wild harvesting and mushroom cultivation provides a much-needed alternative source of income for rural households. However, this has led to over-harvesting and ultimately environmental degradation in certain areas, thus management guidelines allowing for a more sustained approach to the use of wild mushrooms is required. This article addresses a selection of the most popular and highly sought after edible mushrooms from Greater Mekong Subregion: Astraeus hygrometricus, Boletus edulis, Morchella conica, Ophiocordyceps sinensis, Phlebopus portentosus, Pleurotus giganteus, Termitomyces eurhizus, Thelephora ganbajun, Tricholoma matsuake, and Tuber indicum in terms of value, ecology and conservation. The greatest threat to these and many other mushroom species is that of habitat loss and over-harvesting of wild stocks, thus, by creating awareness of these issues we wish to enable a more sustainable use of these natural products. Thus our paper provides baseline data for these fungi so that future monitoring can establish the effects of continued harvesting on mushroom populations and the related host species.


Mushroom species Greater Mekong Sub-region Medicinal foods Non-timber forest products 



We acknowledge and thank CGIAR Research Program 6 on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry-Mekong Sentinel Landscapes for funding this project. Also, value added products from basidiomycetes: Putting Thailand’s biodiversity to use (BRN049/2553), the French-Thai cooperation PHC SIAM 2011 (project 25587RA), the National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT), the project—Taxonomy, Phylogeny and cultivation of Lentinus species in northern Thailand (NRCT/55201020007), Thailand Research Fund (TRF) project number BRG5580009 and Mae Fah Luang University, the project—Taxonomy, Phylogeny and cultivation of Lentinus species in northern Thailand (MFU/54 1 01 02 00 48) are thanked for providing support to this study.


  1. Amaranthus M, Pilz D (1996) Productivity and sustainable harvest of wild mushrooms. In: Pilz, D., Molina, R. (Eds.), Managing Forest Ecosystems to Conserve Fungus Diversity and Sustain Wild Mushroom Harvests. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-371:42–61Google Scholar
  2. Amaranthus MP, Pilz D, Moore A, Abbott R, Luoma D (1996) American Matsutake (Tricholoma magnivelare) across spatial and tempora scales. In: Paper presented at the Forest Soils Biology and Forest Management Symposia, Sacramento, CAGoogle Scholar
  3. Amaranthus MP, Weigand JF, Abbott R (1998) Managing high-elevation forests to produce American matsutake (Tricholoma magnivelare), high-quality timber, and nontimber forest products. West J Appl For 13(4):120–128Google Scholar
  4. Arnolds E (1995) Conservation and management of natural populations of edible fungi. Can J Bot 73:987–998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bandala VM, Montoya L, Jarvio D (2004) Two interesting records of Boletes found in coffee plantations in Eastern Mexico. Persoonia 18:365–380Google Scholar
  6. Batra LR (1979) Insect-fungus Symbiosis, Nutrition. Mutualism and Commensalism, John WileyGoogle Scholar
  7. Berkeley MJ (1847) Decades of fungi. Dec. XV–XIX. Ceylon fungi. Lond J Bot 6:479–514Google Scholar
  8. Binder M, Hibbett DS (2006) Molecular systematics and biological diversification of Boletales. Mycologia 98:971–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boa E (2007) Wild edible fungi—a global overview of their use and importance to people. Daya Publishing House, DelhiGoogle Scholar
  10. Bonito G, Trappe J, Donovan S, Vilgalys R (2011) The Asian black truffle Tuber indicum can form ectomycorrhizas with North American host plants and complete its life cycle in non-native soils. Fungal Ecol 4:83–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boonyanuphap J, Hansawasdi C (2011) Spatial distribution of Beta glucan containing wild mushroom communities in subtropical dry forest, Thailand. Fungal Divers 46:29–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Butkrachang S, Boonchieng E, Sardsud U, Sukchotiratana M, Plikomol A, Chairote G, Narongchai P (2007) Wild mushroom database of Chiang Mai community forest. Asian J Biol 3:65–70Google Scholar
  13. Cannon PF, Hywel-Jones NL, Maczey N, Norbu L, Tshitila ST, Lhendup P (2009) Steps towards sustainable harvest of Ophiocordyceps sinensis in Bhutan. Biodivers Conserv 18:2263–2281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carlile MJ, Watkinson SC (1994) The Fungi. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  15. Chandra A, Purkayastha R (1977) Physiological studies on Indian edible mushrooms. Trans Br Mycol Soc 69(1):63–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chandrasrikul A (2011) Checklist of Mushrooms (Basidiomycetes) in Thailand, Open Biodiversity series, Vol. 30Google Scholar
  17. Chang ST, Buswell JA (1996) Mushroom nutriceuticals. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 12(5):473–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chang S, Miles PG (2004) Mushrooms Cultivation, Nutritional Value, Medicinal Effect, and Environmental Impact. ISBN: 978-0-8493-1043-0:27–37 doi:  10.1201/9780203492086.ch2
  19. Chen CJ, Hu WH (2002) SX330 and culture techniques of Clitocybe maxima. Edible Fungi 24(2):15Google Scholar
  20. Chen SJ, Yin DH, Li L, Zha X, Shuen JH and Zhama C (2000) Resources and distribution of Cordyceps sinensis in Naqu Tibet. Zhong Yaocai 2311:673–675 (Chinese, English abstract)Google Scholar
  21. Chen J, Deng X, Liu P (2009) Research status and significant progress on the genus Tuber. Microbiol 36:1013–1018Google Scholar
  22. Chen G, Zhou D, Yang Y, Yang X (2011) Fruiting pattern of Tricholoma matsutake and its relationship with meteorological factors in Yunnan, China. Plant Divers Resour 33(5):547–555Google Scholar
  23. Cheng YH, Zhao Q, Yang ZL, Zhou DQ, Xu ZZ (2009) Brief of Morchella spp. planting by Populus bonatii material. Chinese Agr Sci Bull 25(21):170–172Google Scholar
  24. Chevalier G, Grente J (1979) Application pratique de la symbiose Ectomycorhizienne: production a Grande Echelle de plants Mycorhizes par la Truffle (Tuber melanosporum Vittad.). Mushroom Sci 102:483–505Google Scholar
  25. Chu HF, Wang LY, Han HX (2004) Fauna Sinica, volume 38, Lepidoptera: Hepialidae, Epiplemidae. Science Press, Beijing, p 291, In Chinese with English abstractGoogle Scholar
  26. Cunningham AB, Yang X (2011) Fungi and the future, in: Mushrooms in forests and Woodlands. Earthscan Publishers, UK, p 189Google Scholar
  27. Daba AS, Ezeronye OU (2003) Anti-cancer effect of polysaccharides isolated from higher basidiomycetes mushrooms. Afr J Biotechnol 2(12):672–678Google Scholar
  28. Dai YC, Yang ZL, Cui BK, Yu CJ, Zhou LW (2009) Species diversity and utilization of medicinal mushrooms and fungi in China (Review). Int J Med Mushrooms 11:287–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. De Silva DD, Rapior S, Françoise F, Bahkali AH, Hyde KD (2012) Medicinal mushrooms in supportive cancer therapies: an approach to anti-cancer effects and putative mechanisms of action. Fungal Divers  10.1007/s13225-012-0151-3
  30. Dell B, Malajczuk N, Dunstan W, Gong MQ, Chen YL, Lumyong S, Lumyong P, Supriyanto, Ekwey L (2000) Edible forest fungi in SE Asia—current practices and future management. In Proceedings of the International Workshop Biotechnology Applications for Reforestation and Biodiversity Conservation, Nepal, 1999, BIO-REFOR: 123–130Google Scholar
  31. Dell B, Sanmee R, Lumyong P, Lumyong S (2005) Ectomycorrhizal fungi in dry and wet dipterocarp forests in northern Thailand—diversity and use as food. Proceedings of the 8th Round Table Conference on Dipterocarps, Ho Chi Minh CityGoogle Scholar
  32. Devkota S (2006) Yarsagumba (Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc.), traditional utilization in Dolpa District, western Nepal. Our Nat 4:48–52Google Scholar
  33. Devkota S (2009) The frequency and relationship of flowering plants on the distribution pattern of Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Yarchagunbu) in the Highlands of Dolpa District, Nepal. Banko Janakari 19(1):29–36Google Scholar
  34. Dring DM (1973) Gasteromycetes. In: Ainsworth GC, Sparrow FK, Sussman AS (eds) The Fungi; an Advanced Treatise. IVB. Academic Press, London. ISBN 0-12-045604-4Google Scholar
  35. Du P, Cui BK, Dai YC (2011a) High genetic diversity in wild culinary-medicinal wood ear analysis. Int J Med Mushrooms 13:289–298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Du P, Cui BK, Dai YC (2011b) Genetic diversity of wild Auricularia polytricha in Yunnan Province of South-western China revealed by sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) analysis. J Med Plants Res 5:1374–1381Google Scholar
  37. Egli S (2011) Mycorrhizal mushroom diversity and productivity—an indicator of forest health? Annals Forest Sci 68(1):81–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. FAO (1995) Non-Wood Forest Products for Rural Income and Sustainable Forestry, vol 7. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  39. García-Montero LG, Díaz P, Massimo GD, García-Abril A (2010) A review of research on Chinese Tuber species. Mycol Prog 9:315–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gardner S, Sidisunthorn P, Anusarnsunthorn V (2000) A Field Guide to Forest Trees of Northern Thailand. Asia Books Co., Ltd, Bangkok, p 560Google Scholar
  41. Ge ZW, Yang ZL, Vellinga EC (2010) The genus Macrolepiota (Agaricaceae, Basidiomycota) in China. Fungal Divers 45:81–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Goldway M, Amir R, Goldberg D, Hadar Y, Levanon D (2000) Morchella conica exhibiting a long fruiting season. Mycol Res 104:1000–1004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gui MY, Zhu P, Guo YH, Liu P, Pu CX (2002) Study on the biological characters of Morchella conica. China Wild Plant Resour 21(3):7–10Google Scholar
  44. Gui MY, Liu B, Zhou P, Guo YH, Pu CX, Ma SB (2005) A preliminary study on the ecology of edible Thelephora. Sw China J Agric Sci 18:325–327 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  45. Hall IR, Lyon AJE, Wang Y, Sinclair L (1998a) Ectomycorrhizal fungi with edible fruiting bodies Boletus edulis. Econ Bot 52(1):44–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hall IR, Zambonelli A, Primavera F (1998b) Ectomycorrhizal fungi with edible fruiting bodies Tuber magnatum, Tuberaceae. Econ Bot 52:192–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. He J, Zhou Z, Yang H, Xu J (2011) Integrative management of commercialized wild mushroom: A case study of Thelephora ganbajun in Yunnan, Southwest China. Environ manage 48:98–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Heim R (1936) Observations sur la flore mycologique malgache. III, Trois bolets gigantesque d’Afrique et de Madagascar. Revue de Mycologie 1:3–18Google Scholar
  49. Heinemann P, Rammeloo J (1982) Observations sur le genre Phlebopus (Boletineae). Mycotaxon 15:384–404Google Scholar
  50. Hens L, Boon EK (2003) Causes of Biodiversity Loss: a Human Ecological Analysis. Futuro dos Recursos no 1:1–28Google Scholar
  51. Hosford D, Pilz D, Molina R, Amaranthus M (1997) Ecology and Management of the Commercially Harvested American Matsutake Mushroom. United States Department of Agriculture Ecology and Management of Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research StationGoogle Scholar
  52. Hu HD, Wang Y, Hu BY (2005) Cultivation of Tuber formosanum on limed soil in Taiwan. New Zeal J Crop Hort 33:363–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Huang QR (2005) Study of the submerged culture of Clitocybe maxima mycelia and its effect on isolated muscular fatigue induced by electric stimulation in toad. Food Sci 26:86–90Google Scholar
  54. Hyde KD, Bahkali AH, Moslem MA (2010) Fungi—an unusual source for cosmetics. Fungal Divers 43:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ji KP, Hei MX, Zhang CX, Liu J, Wang WB, Hou JY (2009) Semiartificial simulate cultivation of Phlebopus portentosus and the durability of hyphae on host roots. Microbio 36:377–382Google Scholar
  56. Ji KP, Cao Y, Zhang CX, He MX, Liu J, Wang WB, Wang Y (2011) Cultivation of Phlebopus portentosus in southern China. Mycol Prog 10(3):293–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kanwal HK, Karan Acharya K, Ramesh G, Reddy MS (2010) Molecular Characterization of Morchella species from the Western Himalayan Region of India. Curr Microbiol 62:1245–1252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Karunarathna SC, Yang ZL, Olivier R, Ko Ko TW, Vellinga EC, Zhao RL, Bahkali AK, Chukeatirote E, Degreef J, Callac P, Hyde KD (2011a) Lentinus giganteus revisited: new collections from Sri Lanka and Thailand. Mycotaxon 118:57–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Karunarathna SC, Yang ZL, Zhao R, Vellinga EC, Bahkali AH, Chukeatirote E, Hyde KD (2011b) Three new species of Lentinus from northern Thailand. Mycol Prog 10:389–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kasparavicius J (2001) Influence of climatic conditions on the growth of fruit bodies of Boletus edulis. Botanica Lithuanica 7(1):73–78Google Scholar
  61. Kendrick B (2000) The Fifth Kingdom, 3rd edn. Focus Publishing, NewburyportGoogle Scholar
  62. Kerekes J, Desjardin DE (2009) A monograph of the genera Crinipellis and Moniliophthora from Southeast Asia including a molecular phylogeny of the nrITS region. Fungal Divers 37:101–152Google Scholar
  63. Kim HO, Yun JW (2005) A comparative study on the production of exopolysaccharides between two entomopathogenic fungi Cordyceps militaris and Cordyceps sinensis in submerged mycelial cultures. J Appl Microbiol 99:728–738PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kobayasi Y (1982) Keys to the texa of genera Cordyceps and Torrubiella. Trans Mycol Soc Japan 23:329–364Google Scholar
  65. Kone NA, Dosso K, Konate S, Kouadio JY, Linsenmair KE (2011) Environmental and biological determinants of Termitomyces species seasonal fructification in central and southern Cote d’Ivoire. Insect Soc 58(3):371–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Koune J (2001) Threatened Mushrooms in Europe. Nature and Environment No. 122. Council of Europe Publishing, Strasbourg Cedex. ISBN 92-871-4666-7Google Scholar
  67. Kumla J, Bussaban B, Suwannarach N, Lumyong S, Danell E (2012) Basidiome formation of an edible wild, putatively ectomycorrhizal fungus, Phlebopus portentosus without host plant. doi:10.3852/11-074
  68. Le TH, Nuytinck J, Stubbe D, Verbeken A, Lumyong S, Desjardin ED (2007a) Lactarius in Northern Thailand: 2. Lactarius subgenus Plinthogali. Fungal Divers 27:61–94Google Scholar
  69. Le TH, Nuytinck J, Verbeken A, Lumyong S, Desjardin ED (2007b) Lactarius in Northern Thailand: 1. Lactarius subgenus Piperites. Fungal Divers 24:173–224Google Scholar
  70. Lei QY, Zhou JJ, Wang QB (2009) Notes on three boletus species from China. Mycosystema 28:56–59Google Scholar
  71. Li TH, Song B (2003) Bolete species known from China. Gui Zhou Science 21(1–2):78–85Google Scholar
  72. Li YC, Feng B, Yang ZL (2011) Zangia, a new genus of Boletaceae supported by molecular and morphological evidence. Fungal Divers 49:125–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Liang J, Jia XZ, Wang Y, Zhang XY, Nguyen H (2004) The physiological characteristics and salinity and alkalinity resistance of two ectomycorrhizal fungi. Scientia Silvae Sinicae 40(6):115–120Google Scholar
  74. Lin ZS (2005) Culture isolation and investigation of bioactivities from Termitomyces eurhizus. Dissertation, southern Taiwan University of technology and science, TainanGoogle Scholar
  75. Liu P, Yan M, Wang X, Sun P, Yang X (1999) Notes on the resources of matsutake-group and their reasonable utilization as well as effective conservation in China (in Chinese). J Nat Res 14(3):245–252Google Scholar
  76. Lu Y, Ao Z, Cheng C, Wu C, Zheng Y (2007) Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the mycelial extract of Termitomyces albuminosus. Chinese Traditional Patent Medicine 12Google Scholar
  77. Mallick SK, Swatilekha M, Bhutia SK, Maiti TK (2010) Immunostimulatory properties of a polysaccharide isolated from Astraeus hygrometricus. J Med Food 13(3):665–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mao XL (2000) The Macrofungi in China. Henan Scientific and Technological Press, ZhenzhouGoogle Scholar
  79. Masaphy S (2010) Biotechnology of morel mushrooms: successful fruiting body formation and development in a soilless system. Biotech Lett 32:1523–1527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Menzies NK, Li C (2010) One Eye on the Forest, One Eye on the Market: Multi-Tiered Regulation of Matsutake Harvesting, Conservation and Trade in North-Western Yunnan Province Wild Product Governance. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  81. Miller OK, Miller SL (1988) Gasteromycetes. Mad River Press, EurekaGoogle Scholar
  82. Molina R, Vance N, Weigand JF, Pilz D, Amaranthus MP (1997) Special forest products: integrating social, economic, and biological considerations into ecosystem management. In: Kohm KA, Franklin JF (eds) Creating a Forestry for the 21st Century: The Science of Ecosystem Management. Island Press, Washington, DC, pp 315–336Google Scholar
  83. Mondal S, Chakraborty I, Pramanik M, Rout D, Islam SS (2004) Structural studies of water-soluble polysaccharides of an edible mushroom, Termitomyces eurhizus. A reinvestigation. Carbohyd Res 339(6):1135–1140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Moore D, Chiu SW (2001) In: Pointing SB, Hyde KD (eds) Fungal products as food. In Bio-Exploitation of Filamentous Fungi. Fungal Diversity Press, Hong Kong, pp 223–251Google Scholar
  85. Moore D, Robson GD, Trinci APJ (2011) 21st Century Guidebook to Fungi. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, ISBN 9780521186957Google Scholar
  86. Morgan AP (1889) North American Fungi: the Gastromycetes. J Cincinnati Soc Nat Hist 12:8–22Google Scholar
  87. Namgyel P, Tshitila (2003) Rare, endangered, over-exploitation and extinction of plant species? Putting Cordyceps—a high value medicinal plant-to test. Council of Research and Extension and Bhutan Trust Fund for Environmental Conservation, ThimphuGoogle Scholar
  88. Napoli C, Mello A, Borra A, Vizzini A, Sourzat P and Bonfante P (2009) Tuber melanosporum, when dominant, affects fungal dynamics in truffle grounds. New Phytol: 1–11Google Scholar
  89. Neves MA, Capelari M (2007) A preliminary checklist of Boletales from Brazil and notes on Boletales specimens at the Instituto de Botanica (SP) Herbarium, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Sitientibus serie ciencias bio 7:163–169Google Scholar
  90. Paterson RRM (2008) Cordyceps—A traditional Chinese medicine and another fungal therapeutic biofactory? Phytochemistry 69:1469–1495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Pegler DN (1983) The genus Lentinus: a world monograph. HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  92. Pegler DN (1986) Agaric Flora of Sri Lanka. Kew: Bull Add Ser 12:1–519Google Scholar
  93. Pegler DN, Yao YJ, Li Y (1994) The Chinese ‘Caterpillar Fungus’. Mycologist 8:3–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Peng J (2006) Agro-Waste for Cultivation of Edible Mushrooms in Taiwan. TPHealth, No. 44, Sec. 2, Yongsing Rd., Dongshan Township Ilan, TaiwanGoogle Scholar
  95. Perini C ed. (1998) Conservation of fungi in Europe. Proceedings of the 4th meeting of the European Council for the Conservation of Fungi. Vipiteno (Sterzing, Italy), 9–14 September 1997. Siena, Italy, Universita degli Studi de Siena: pp 159Google Scholar
  96. Phosri C, Watling R, Martin MP, Whalley AJS (2004) The genus Astraeus in Thailand. Mycotaxon 89:453–463Google Scholar
  97. Phosri C, Martin MP, Sihanonth P, Whalley AS, Watling R (2007) Molecular study of the genus Astraeus. Mycol Res 111(3):275–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Pilz D, Molina R (1996) Managing forest ecosystems to conserve fungus diversity and sustain wild mushroom harvests. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-371. Portland, OR: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station: pp 104Google Scholar
  99. Ponce RA, Águeda B, Ágreda T, Modrego MP, Aldea J, Fernándea-Toirán LM, Martínez-Peńa (2011) Rockroses and Boletus edulis ectomycorrhizal association: realized niche and climatic suitability in Spain. Fungi Ecol 4:224–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ren DJ, Song MS, Yao YJ (2005) Literature review of Tuber species in China. J Fungal Res 3:37–46Google Scholar
  101. Ruksawong P, Flegel TW (2001) Thai mushrooms and other fungi. National Science and Technology Development Agency (in Thai). Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning (ONEP), Thailand, Open Biodiversity SeriesGoogle Scholar
  102. Samils N, Olivera A, Danell E, Alexander SJ, Fischer C, Colinas C (2008) The socioeconomic impact of truffle cultivation in rural Spain. Econ Bot 62:331–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Sanmee R, Dell B, Lumpong P, Izumori K, Lumyong S (2003) Nutritive value of popular wild edible mushrooms from Northern Thailand. Food Chem 82:527–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Sanmee R, Tulloss RE, Lumyong P, Dell B, Lumyong S (2008) Studies on Amanita (Basidiomycetes: Amanitaceae) in northern Thailand. Fungal Divers 32:97–123Google Scholar
  105. Sanmee R, Lumpong P, Bell D, Lumyong S (2010) In vitro cultivation and fruit body formation of the black bolete, Phlebopus portentosus, a popular edible ectomycorrhizal fungus in Thailand. Mycoscience 51:15–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Segedin BP (1987) An annotated checklist of Agarics and Boletes recorded from New Zealand. NZ J Bot 25:185–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Shao-Yu J (2006) Cultivation of Termitomyces albuminosus and its taste quality and evalution of physiological activities. National Chung Hsing University, TaipeiGoogle Scholar
  108. Singer R (1936) “Das System der Agaricales” (in German). Annales Mycologici 34(4/5):286–378Google Scholar
  109. Singer R (1944) New genera of fungi. I. Mycologia 36(4):358–68. doi: 10.2307/3754752 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Singer R (1986) The Agaricales in Modern Taxonomy, 4th edn. Koeltz Scientific Books, Koenigstein, pp 744–746Google Scholar
  111. Singh N, Pathak R, Kathait AS, Rautela D, Dubey A (2010) Collection of Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. in the interior villages of Chamoli District in Garhwal Himalaya (Uttarakhand) and its Social Impacts. J Am Sci 6(6):120–132Google Scholar
  112. Stefani OPF, Sokolski S, Wurtz T, Piche Y, Hamelin R, Fortin A, Berube JA (2010) Morchella tomentosa: a unique belowground structure and a new clade of morels. Mycologia 102:1082–1088PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Su KM, Zhao YC (2007) The mushrooms in Chuxiong region and technologies relating to artifical promoted production [M]. Yunnan science and technology press, Kunming (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  114. Sun Y (2006) Pharmacological function and application prospect of the edible fungi Polysacchatide. J Community Med 4(2):29–30Google Scholar
  115. Sung JM (1996) Cordyceps of Korea. Kyo-Hak. Publishing, Seoul, p 299Google Scholar
  116. Sung GH, Hywell-Jones NL, Sung JM, Luangsa-ard JJ, Shrestha B, Spatafora JW (2007) Phylogenetic classification of Cordyceps and the clavicipitaceous Fungi. Stud Mycol 57:5–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Sysouphanthong P, Thongkantha S, Zhao R-L, Soytong K, Hyde KD (2010) Mushroom diversity in sustainable shade tea forest and the effect of fire damage. Biodivers Conserv 19:1401–1415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Tan B, Miao W (2009) Research review on active and nutritional components of Termitomyces. Biotechnol 19(3):93–95Google Scholar
  119. Tao K, Liu B (1990) Ecology and nutritive value of Tuber sinese. J Shan xi Univ (Nat Sci Ed) 13:319–329Google Scholar
  120. Tapingkae T (2005) Part II Mushroom for Better Life, Mushroom growing in Lao PDR. Rural Science and Technology Development Center, ThailandGoogle Scholar
  121. Tarkka MT, Piechulla B (2007) Aromatic weapons: truffles attack plants by the production of volatiles. New Phytol 175:381–383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Thongklang N, Hyde KD, Bussaban B, Lumyong S (2010) Culture condition, inoculum production and host response of a wild mushroom, Phlebopus portentosus strain CMUHH121-005. Maejo Int J Sci Technol 5(3):413–425Google Scholar
  123. Trappe JM (1979) The orders, families and genera of hypogeous ascomycotina (truffles and their relatives). Mycotaxon 9:297–340Google Scholar
  124. Trappe JM, Molina R, Luoma DL, Cázares E, Pilz D, Smith JE, Castellano MA, Miller SL, Trappe MJ (2009) Diversity, ecology, and conservation of Truffle fungi in forests of the Pacific northwest. United States Department of Agriculture, Portland, p 194Google Scholar
  125. Udugama S, Wickramaratna K (1991) Artificial production of naturally occurring Lentinus giganteus (Uru Paha), a Sri Lankan edible mushroom. Horticultural Crop Research & Development Institute (HORDI), GannoruwaGoogle Scholar
  126. Van de Putte K, Nuytinck J, Stubbe D, Le TH, Verbeken A (2010) Lactarius volemus sensu lato (Russulales) from northern Thailand: morphological and phylogenetic species concepts explored. Fungal Divers 45:99–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Wang GD (1995) Cordyceps spp.: Ecology, Cultivation and Application. Scientific and Technical Literature Publishing House, Beijing, pp 1–307Google Scholar
  128. Wang L, Du D (2005) Research Progress of the Edible Fungi. J ZheJiang Sci Tech 255(5):49–53Google Scholar
  129. Wang XL, Yao YJ (2011) Host insect species of Ophiocordyceps sinensis: a review. Zookeys 127:43–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Wang Y, Hall IR, Evans LA (1997) Ectomycorrhizal fungi with edible fruiting bodies.1. Tricholoma matsutake and related fungi. Econ Bot 51(3):311–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Wang XE, Yao FJ, Li Y (2005a) Research advancement of truffle. Edible Fungi China 24:6–9Google Scholar
  132. Wang Y, Di Y, Yang J (2005b) Antioxidation of Termitomyces albuminosus in hypercholesterolemia rats. China Prev Med 6(1):10–12Google Scholar
  133. Wang ZC, Li JH, Jiang HY, Li SF, Wen L (2011) The artificial promoted production of Boletus edulis (in Chinese). J ChongQing Fore Sci Tech 1:38–40Google Scholar
  134. Wannathes N, Desjardin DE, Hyde KD, Perry BA, Lumyong S (2009a) A monograph of Marasmius (Basidiomycota) from northern Thailand based on morphological and molecular (ITS sequences). Fungal Divers 37:209–306Google Scholar
  135. Wannathes N, Desjardin DE, Lumyong S (2009b) Four new species of Marasmius section Globulares from northern Thailand. Fungal Divers 36:155–163Google Scholar
  136. Watling R (2001) Australia boletes: their diversity and possible origin. Austral Syst Bot 14:407–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Watling R, Gregory NM (1988) Observation on the boletes of the Cooloola Sandmass, Queensland and notes on their distribution in Australia. Part 2 B. Smooth spored taxa of the family Gyrodontaceae and the genus Pulveroboletus. Proc R Soc Qd 99:65–76Google Scholar
  138. Weckerle CS, Yang Y, Huber FK, Li Q (2010) People, money, and protected areas: the collection of the caterpillar mushroom Ophiocordyceps sinensis in the Baima Xueshan Nature Reserve, Southwest China. Biodivers Conserv 19:2685–2698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Weden C, Danell E, Camacho FJ, Backlund A (2004) The population of the hypogeous fungus Tuber aestivum syn. Tuber uncinatum on the island of Gotland. Mycorrhiza 14:19–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Wei T, Yao Y (2003) Current situations and prospect of researches on Termitomyces ecology. J Jilin Agric Univ 25(3):282–287Google Scholar
  141. Winkler D (2008) Yartsa Gunbu (Cordyceps sinensis) and the fungal commodification of Tibet’s rural economy. Econ Bot 62:291–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Wu N (1997) Rangeland Resources and Conditions in western Sichuan. In: Miller DJ, Craig SR (eds) Rangelands and Pastoral Development in the Hindu Kush-Himalayas. ICIMOD, Kathmandu, pp 23–40Google Scholar
  143. Yang ZL (2011) Molecular techniques revolutionize knowledge of basidiomycete evolution. Fungal Divers 50:47–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Yang ZL, Zang M (2003) Tropical affinities of higher fungi in southern China. Acta Bot Yunnanica 25:129–144Google Scholar
  145. Yang X, He J, Li C, Ma J, Yang Y, Xu J (2006a) Management of matutake in NW-Yunnan and key issues for its sustainable utilization. In: Kleinn C, Yang Y, Weyerhäuser H, Stark M (eds) Sino-German Symposium on the sustainable harvest of Non-timber forest products in China. Göttingen, Germany, pp 42–52Google Scholar
  146. Yang X, Skidmore AK, Melick DR, Zhou Z, Xu J (2006b) Mapping non-wood forest product (matsutake mushrooms) using logistic regression and a GIS expert system. Ecol Model 198(1–2):208–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Yang X, He J, Li C, Ma J, Yang Y, Xu J (2008) Matsutake trade in Yunnan Province, China: an overview. Econ Bot 62(3):269–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Yang XQ, Kodikara GRL, Luedeling E, Yang XF, He J, Liu P, Xu J (2012) Looking below the ground: prediction of Tuber indicum habitat using the weight of evidence method. Ecol Model (in press)Google Scholar
  149. Yao YJ (2004) Conservation and rational use of the natural resources of Cordyceps sinensis. Sci News 15:28–29 [In Chinese]Google Scholar
  150. Yujin Z, Huachun G, Rongchun L (2010) Status of termite-mushroom artificial domestication cultivation-A review. Acta Microbiol Sin 50(10):1288–1292Google Scholar
  151. Zang M (1997) Taxonomy, mycogeography and ecto-mycorrhizal association with the Boletales from China. I. Family Strobilomycetaceae. Mycosystema 16(4):264–269Google Scholar
  152. Zang M, Kinjo N (1998) Notes on the alpine Cordyceps of China and nearby nations. Mycotaxon 66:215–229Google Scholar
  153. Zappa S, Gioacchini AM, Guidi C, Guescini M, Pierleoni R, Zambonelli A, Stocchi V (2004) Determination of specific volatile organic compounds synthsised during Tuber borchii fruit body developement by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 18:199–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Zhang DC, Wang Y (1990) Study on Chinese truffle and its ecology. Edible Fungi China 9:25–27Google Scholar
  155. Zhang P, Chen ZH, Xiao B, Tolgor B, Bao HY, Yang ZL (2010) Lethal amanitas of East Asia characterized by morphological and molecular data. Fungal Divers 42:119–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Zhao RL (2008) Systematics of Agaricus, Cyathus and Micropsalliota in northern Thailand. PhD thesis, KMITL, Bangkok, ThailandGoogle Scholar
  157. Zhao Y, Hou B, Tang B, Li X, Yang X (2009) Application of ultrasonics to enhance the efficiency of cleaning Thelephora ganbajun. Ultrason Sonochem 16:209–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Zhao Q, Kang PD, Qi SW, Chen YH, Xu ZZ (2010a) Current statues of morels resources and sustainable development strategies. Southwest China J Agric Sci 23(1):266–269Google Scholar
  159. Zhao RL, Desjardin DE, Soytong K, Perry BA, Hyde KD (2010b) A monograph of Micropsalliota in northern Thailand based on morphological and molecular data. Fungal Divers 43:33–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Zhao RL, Hyde KD, Desjardin DE, Raspé O, Soytong K, Guinberteau J, Karunarathna SC, Callac P (2011a) Agaricus flocculosipes sp. nov., a new potentially cultivatable species from the palaeotropics. Mycoscience doi  10.1007/s10267-011-0169-5
  161. Zhao RL, Karunarathna SC, Raspé O, Parra LA, Guinberteau J, Moinard M, De Kesel A, Barroso G, Courtecuisse R, Hyde KD, Guelly AK, Desjardin DE, Callac P (2011b) Major clades in tropical Agaricus. Fungal Divers 51:279–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Zheng S, Li C, Ng TB, Wang HX (2007) A lectin with mitogenic activity from the edible wild mushroom Boletus edulis. Process Biochem 42(12):1620–1624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Zhishu B, Zheng G, Taihui L (1997) The Macrofungus Flora of China’s Guangdong Province. Polit Sci: pp 756Google Scholar
  164. Zhou JQ, Wang LX, Duan YY, Pen W (1992) Assessment of ten common edible mushroom. Edible Fungi China 11:23–26Google Scholar
  165. Zhu JS, James R (2004) Presented at the American Physiological Society’s (APS) annual scientific conference, Experimental Biology 2003, held April 17–21, 2004, in Washington DCGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Mushroom Research Foundation 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter E. Mortimer
    • 1
    • 2
  • Samantha C. Karunarathna
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Qiaohong Li
    • 6
    • 2
  • Heng Gui
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Xueqing Yang
    • 2
    • 6
  • Xuefei Yang
    • 1
  • Jun He
    • 6
    • 2
  • Lei Ye
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Jiayu Guo
    • 1
  • Huili Li
    • 3
    • 4
  • Phongeun Sysouphanthong
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Dequn Zhou
    • 7
  • Jianchu Xu
    • 2
    Email author
  • Kevin D. Hyde
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Biodiversity and Biogeography, Kunming Institute of BotanyChinese Academy of SciencesKunmingChina
  2. 2.World Agroforestry Centre, East AsiaKunmingChina
  3. 3.Institute of Excellence in Fungal ResearchMae Fah Luang UniversityChiang RaiThailand
  4. 4.School of ScienceMae Fah Luang UniversityChiang RaiThailand
  5. 5.Mushroom Research FoundationA. Mae TaengThailand
  6. 6.Centre for Mountain Ecosystem Studies, Kunming Institute of BotanyChinese Academy of SciencesKunmingChina
  7. 7.Faculty of Environmental Science and EngineeringKunming University of Science and TechnologyKunmingChina

Personalised recommendations