Fungal Diversity

, Volume 58, Issue 1, pp 13–32 | Cite as

High diversity of Graphidaceae (lichenized Ascomycota: Ostropales) in Amazonian Perú

Article

Abstract

A survey of crustose microlichens at Los Amigos Biological Station in Amazonian Peru revealed 116 species of Graphidaceae at this site. This is the second highest number of Graphidaceae ever reported for a single site world-wide, after the Surumoni crane station in Venezuela, with 131 species, and followed by Fakahatchee Strand Park Preserve in Florida, with 111 species. Based on the number of Graphidaceae found at Los Amigos, we predict the total lichen species richness at this site to be approximately 700 species. Of the 116 species encountered at Los Amigos, 59 were graphidoid species (former Graphidaceae s.str.) and 67 thelotremoid species (former Thelotremataceae). The following 18 species are described as new: Ampliotrema sorediatum Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova, Chapsa hypoconstictica Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova, Chapsa scabiocarpa Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova, Chapsa subsorediata Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova, Diorygma nigricans Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova, Fissurina flavomedullosa Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova, Fissurina platythecioides Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova, Graphis apertoinspersa Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova, Graphis pitmanii Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova, Leucodecton inspersum Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova, Ocellularia cicra Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova, Ocellularia fenestrata Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova, Ocellularia microsorediata Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova, Ocellularia natashae Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova, Ocellularia plicata Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova, Ocellularia protoinspersa Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova, Ocellularia pustulata Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova, and Thelotrema amazonicum Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova.

Keywords

Lichens Thelotremoid Tropical Rainforest Corticolous Madre de Dios 

References

  1. Ascorra C, Barreda R, Chicchon A, Chonati AM, Dávalos L, Espinel L Gironda A, Llosa G, Mendoza E, Mitchell C, Mora C, Mora M, Padilla P, Piland R, Ponce C, Ramírez J, Varese M. (1999) Zona Reservada de Tambopata-Candamo, Lima, Perú: Conservación Internacional.Google Scholar
  2. Bock C, Hauck M (2005) Graphis tetralocularis, a new lichen with four-celled ascospores from tropical Africa. Lichenologist 37:105–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Frisch A (2006) Contributions towards a new systematics of the lichen family Thelotremataceae I. The lichen family Thelotremataceae in Africa. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 92:3–370Google Scholar
  4. Frisch A, Kalb K (2006) The lichen Topeliopsis, additions and corrections. Lichenologist 38:37–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Frisch A, Kalb K, Grube M (2006) Contributions towards a new systematics of the lichen family Thelotremataceae. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 92:1–556Google Scholar
  6. Gradstein SR, Hietz P, Lücking R, Lücking A, Sipman HJM, Vester HFM, Wolf JHD, Gardette E (1996) How to sample the epiphytic diversity of tropical rain forests. Ecotropica 2:59–72Google Scholar
  7. Hale ME Jr (1974) Morden-Smithsonian Expedition to Dominica: The lichens (Thelotremataceae). Smithson Contr Bot 16:1–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hale ME Jr (1978) A revision of the lichen family Thelotremataceae in Panama. Smithson Contrib Bot 38:1–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hale ME Jr (1981) A revision of the lichen family Thelotremataceae in Sri Lanka. Bulletin British Museum (Natural History). Botany Series 8:227–332Google Scholar
  10. Kalb K (2004) New or otherwise interesting lichens II. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 88:301–329Google Scholar
  11. Kalb K (2009) New taxa and new records of thelotremoid Graphidaceae. Herzogia 22:17–42Google Scholar
  12. Kalb K, Staiger B, Elix JA (2004) A monograph of the lichen genus Diorygma – a first attempt. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 34(1):133–181Google Scholar
  13. Komposch H, Hafellner J (1999) List of lichenized fungi so far observed in the tropical lowland rain forest plot Surumoni (Venezuela, Estado Amazonas). Fritschiana 19:1–10Google Scholar
  14. Komposch H, Hafellner J (2000) Diversity and vertical distribution of lichens in a Venezuelan tropical lowland rain forest. Selbyana 21:11–24Google Scholar
  15. Komposch H, Hafellner J (2003) Species composition of lichen dominated corticolous communities: a lowland rain forest canopy compared to an adjacent shrubland in Venezuela. Biblioteca Lichenologica 86:351–367Google Scholar
  16. Lücking R (2008) Foliicolous lichenized fungi. Flora Neotropica Monograph 103:1–867Google Scholar
  17. Lücking R (2009) The taxonomy of the genus Graphis sensu Staiger (Ascomycota: Ostropales: Graphidaceae). Lichenologist 41:319–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lücking R, Archer AW, Aptroot A (2009a) A world-wide key to the genus Graphis (Ostropales: Graphidaceae). Lichenologist 41:363–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lücking R, Rivas Plata E, Chaves JL, Umaña L, Sipman HJM (2009b) How many tropical lichens are there… really? Bibliotheca Lichenologica 100:399–418Google Scholar
  20. Lücking R, Seavey F, Common RS, Beeching SQ, Breuss O, Buck WR, Crane L, Hodges M, Hodkinson BP, Lay E, Lendemer JC, McMullin RT, Mercado-Díaz JA, Nelsen MP, Rivas Plata E, Safranek W, Sanders WB, Schaefer HP Jr, Seavey J (2011) The lichens of Fakahatchee Strand Preserve State Park, Florida: Proceedings from the 18th Tuckerman Workshop. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History 49:127–186Google Scholar
  21. Lumbsch HT (2002) Analysis of phenolic products in lichens for identification and taxonomy. In: Kranner I, Beckett RP, Varma AK (eds) Protocols in Lichenology. Culturing, Biochemistry, Ecophysiology and Use in Biomonitoring. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 281–295Google Scholar
  22. Lumbsch HT, Ahti T, Altermann S, Amo De Paz G, Aptroot A, Arup U, Bárcenas Peña A, Bawingan PA, Benatti MN, Betancourt L, Björk CR, Boonpragob K, Brand M, Bungartz F, Cáceres MES, Candan M, Chaves JL, Clerc P, Common R, Coppins BJ, Crespo A, Dal-Forno M, Divakar PK, Duya MV, Elix JA, Elvebakk A, Fankhauser JD, Farkas E, Ferraro LI, Fischer E, Galloway DJ, Gaya E, Giralt M, Goward T, Grube M, Hafellner J, Hernández JE, Herrera Campos MA, Kalb K, Kärnefelt I, Kantvilas G, Killmann D, Kirika P, Knudsen K, Komposch H, Kondratyuk S, Lawrey JD, Mangold A, Marcelli MP, McCune B, Messuti MI, Michlig A, Miranda González R, Naikatini A, Nelsen MP, Øvstedal DO, Palice Z, Papong K, Parnmen S, Pérez-Ortega S, Printzen C, Rico VJ, Rivas Plata E, Robayo J, Rosabal D, Ruprecht U, Salazar Allen N, Sancho L, Santos De Jesus L, Santos Vieira T, Schultz M, Seaward MRD, Sérusiaux E, Schmitt I, Sipman HJM, Sohrabi M, Søchting U, Zeuthen Søgaard M, Sparrius LB, Spielmann A, Spribille T, Sutjaritturakan J, Thammathaworn A, Thell A, Thor G, Thüs H, Timdal E, Truong C, Türk R, Umaña Tenorio L, Upreti DK, Van Den Boom P, Vivas Rebuelta M, Wedin M, Will-Wolf S, Wirth V, Wirtz N, Yahr R, Yeshitela K, Ziemmeck F, Wheeler T, Lücking R (2011) One hundred new species of lichenized fungi: a signature of undiscovered global diversity. Phytotaxa 18:1–127Google Scholar
  23. Mangold A, Elix JA, Lumbsch HT (2008) Ocellularia wirthii (Ascomycota, Ostropales), eine neue Art aus Neusüdwales, Australien. Sauteria 15:363–369Google Scholar
  24. Mangold A, Elix JA, Lumbsch HT (2009) Thelotremataceae. Flora of Australia 57:195–420Google Scholar
  25. Orange A, James PW, White FJ (2001) Microchemical Methods for the Identification of Lichens. British Lichen Society, LondonGoogle Scholar
  26. Pitman NCA (2008) An overview of the Los Amigos watershed, Madre de Dios, Southeastern Peru. http://cicra.acca.org.pe/espanol/paisaje_biodiversidad/los-amigos-overview9.pdf.
  27. Pitman NCA (2010) Research in biodiversity hotspots should be free. TREE 25:381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Rivas Plata E, Lücking R, Lumbsch HT (2008) When family matters: an analysis of Thelotremataceae (Lichenized Ascomycota: Ostropales) as bioindicators of ecological continuity in tropical forests. Biodivers Conserv 17:1319–1351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rivas Plata E, Lücking R, Sipman HJM, Mangold A, Kalb K, Lumbsch HT (2010a) A world-wide key to the thelotremoid Graphidaceae, excluding the Ocellularia-Myriotrema-Stegobolus clade. Lichenologist 42:139–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rivas Plata E, Kalb K, Frisch A (2010b) Wirthiotrema: A new genus for the Thelotrema glaucopallens group (Ascomycota: Ostropales: Graphidaceae). Lichenologist 42:197–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rivas Plata E, Lumbsch HT (2011) Parallel evolution and phenotypic disparity in lichenized fungi: a case study in the lichen-forming fungal family Graphidaceae (Ascomycota: Lecanoromycetes: Ostropales). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61:45–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rivas Plata E, Lücking R, Lumbsch HT (2012a) A new classification for the family Graphidaceae (Ascomycota: Lecanoromycetes: Ostropales). Fungal Diversity 52:107–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rivas Plata E, Lücking R, Lumbsch HT, Gonzalez-Meler M. (2012b) Does family matter? A critical reappraisal of the use of the lichen family Thelotremataceae (Ascomycota: Ostropales) as bioindicators of ecological continuity. Journal of Ecology (in press).Google Scholar
  34. Rivas Plata E, Lumbsch HT, Lücking R (2012c) Molecular phylogeny and systematics of the Ocellularia-clade (Ascomycota: Ostropales: Graphidaceae): the problem of nested genus-level lineages. Taxon (in press).Google Scholar
  35. Sipman HJM, Lücking R, Aptroot A, Chaves JL, Kalb K, Umaña Tenorio L (2012) A first assessment of the Ticolichen biodiversity inventory in Costa Rica and adjacent areas: the thelotremoid Graphidaceae (Ascomycota: Ostropales). Phytotaxa (in press).Google Scholar
  36. Staiger B (2002) Die Flechtenfamilie Graphidaceae. Studien in Richtung einer natürlicheren Gliederung. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 85:1–526Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Mushroom Research Foundation 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of Illinois-ChicagoChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Department of BotanyThe Field MuseumChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations