Fungal Diversity

, Volume 51, Issue 1, pp 103–134 | Cite as


  • Putarak Chomnunti
  • Conrad L. Schoch
  • Begoña Aguirre-Hudson
  • Thida W. Ko-Ko
  • Sinang Hongsanan
  • E. B. Gareth Jones
  • Rampai Kodsueb
  • Rungtiwa Phookamsak
  • Ekachai Chukeatirote
  • Ali H. Bahkali
  • Kevin D. HydeEmail author


In this paper we revisit the Capnodiaceae with notes on selected genera. Type specimens of the ascomycetous genera Aithaloderma, Anopeltis, Callebaea, Capnodaria, Echinothecium, Phragmocapnias and Scorias were re-examined, described and illustrated. Leptoxyphium is anamorphic Capnodiaceae and Polychaeton is a legitimate and earlier name for Capnodium, but in order to maintain nomenclatural stability we propose that the teleomorphic name should be considered for the approved lists of names currently in preparation for fungi. Notes are provided on the ascomycetous genus Scoriadopsis. However, we were unable to locate the type of this genus during the time frame of this study. The ascomycetous genera Aithaloderma, Ceramoclasteropsis, Hyaloscolecostroma and Trichomerium are excluded from Capnodiaceae on the basis of having ascostromata and trans-septate hyaline ascospores and should be accommodated in Chaetothyriaceae. Callebaea is excluded as the ascomata are thyriothecia and the genus is placed in Micropeltidaceae. Echinothecium is excluded as synonym of Sphaerellothecium and is transferred to Mycosphaerellaceae. The type specimen of Capnophaeum is lost and this should be considered as a doubtful genus. The coelomycetous Microxiphium is polyphyletic, while the status of Fumiglobus, Polychaetella and Tripospermum is unclear. Fourteen new collections of sooty moulds made in Thailand were isolated and sequenced. The nuclear large and small rDNA was partially sequenced and compared in a phylogeny used to build a more complete understanding of the relationships of genera in Capnodiaceae. Four new species are described and illustrated, while Phragmocapnias and Scorias are epitypified with fresh collections.


Chaetothyriaceae Micropeltidaceae Molecular phylogeny Sooty moulds 



This work was supported by the Thailand Research Fund BRG528002. The Global Research Network for Fungal Biology and King Saud University are also thanked for support. Library staff from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew are thanked for their support locating obscure literature and providing access to their collections. The curators from herbaria G, NY, S are thanked for loaning specimens. The second author acknowledges support by the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, National Library of Medicine.

Supplementary material

13225_2011_145_MOESM1_ESM.doc (91 kb)
Supplementary Table 1 (DOC 91 kb)


  1. Andrew JH (1982) Biological control in the phyllosphere. Annu Rev Phytopathol 30:603–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barr ME (1987) Prodomus to class Loculoascomycetes. Amherst. University of Massachusetts, MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  3. Batista AC, Ciferri R (1962) The Chaetothyriales. Sydowia 3:1–129Google Scholar
  4. Batista AC, Ciferri R (1963a) Capnodiales. Capnodiales. Saccardoa 2:1–296Google Scholar
  5. Batista AC, Ciferri R (1963b) The sooty-molds of the family Asbolisiaceae. Quad Ist Bot Univ Lab Crittogam Pavia 31:1–229Google Scholar
  6. Batista AC, da Silva JO (1967) Hyaloscolecostroma Batista & J. Oliveira, um novo gênero de Phaeosaccardinulaceae. Atas Inst Micol Univ Recife 5:447–452Google Scholar
  7. Batista AC, Peres GEP, Bezerra JL (1962) Novos fungos de fumagina, da família Phaeosaccardinulaceae. Brotéria, SérTrim Cienc Nat 31(2):93–118Google Scholar
  8. Berkeley MJ, Desmazières JBHJ (1849) On some moulds referred by authors to Fumago and to certain allied or analogous forms. J Hortic Soc London 4:3–19Google Scholar
  9. Blakeman JP, Fokkema NJ (1982) Potential for biological control of plant diseases on the phylloplane. Annu Rev Phytopathol 20:162–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Calatayud V, Navarro-Rosinés P, Hafellner J (2002) A synopsis of Lichenostigma subgen. Lichenogramma (Arthoniales), with a key to the species. Mycol Res 106(10):1230–1242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cheewangkoon R, Groenewald JZ, Summerell BA, Hyde KD, To-anun C, Crous PW (2009) Myrtaceae, a cache of fungal biodiversity. Persoonia 23:55–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chevenet F, Brun C, Banuls AL, Jacq B, Christen R (2006) TreeDyn: towards dynamic graphics and annotations for analyses of trees. BMC Bioinforma 7:439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chomnunti P, Ko Ko TW, Cai L, Jones EBG, Chukeatirote E, Kodsueb R, Bahkali AH, Hang C, Hyde KD (2012) Phylogeny of Chaetothyriaceae in northern Thailand including three new species. Mycologia, in pressGoogle Scholar
  14. Crous PW, Schoch CL, Hyde KD, Wood AR, Gueidan C, de Hoog GS, Groenewald JZ (2009) Phylogenetic lineages in the Capnodiales. Stud Mycol 64:17–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Etayo J (2008) Líquenes y hongos liquenícolas del LIC de Ablitas (S. Navarra, España). Cryptog Mycol 29(2):63–94Google Scholar
  16. Faull JL, Olejnik I, Ingrouille M, Reynolds D (2002) A reassessment of the taxonomy of some tropical sooty moulds. Trop Mycol 2:33–40Google Scholar
  17. Fraser L (1935) An investigation of the sooty mould of New South Wales IV The species of the Eucapnodieae. Proc Linn Soc New South Wales 40:159–178Google Scholar
  18. Friend RJ (1965) What is Fumago vagena? Trans Brit Mycol Soc 48:371–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Geiser DM, Gueidan C, Miadlikowska J, Lutzoni F, Kauff F, Hofstetter V, Fraker E, Schoch CL, Tibell L, Untereiner WA, Aptroot A (2006) Eurotiomycetes: eurotiomycetidae and Chaetothyriomycetidae. Mycologia 98(6):1053–1064PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hall T (2004) Bioedit 7.0.1 Isis Pharmaceuticals, U.S.A.: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Sym Ser 41:95–98Google Scholar
  21. Hansford CG (1947) New or interesting tropical fungi I. Proc Linn Soc London 158(1):28–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hawksworth DL (2011) A new dawn for the naming of fungi: impacts of decisions made in Melbourne in July 2011 on the future publication and regulation of fungal names. MycoKeys 1:7–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hosagoudar VB, Riju MC (2011) Some interesting Meliolaceae members from Western Ghats Region of Kerala State. Plant Pathol Quar 1(2):121–129Google Scholar
  24. Huelsenbeck JP, Ronquist F (2001) MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees. Bioinformatics 17:754–755PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Huelsenbeck JP, Ronquist F, Nielsen R, Bollback JP (2001) Bayesian inference of phylogeny and its impact on evolutionary biology. Science 294:2310–2314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hughes SJ (1951) Studies on micro-fungi X. Zygosporium. Mycol Pap 44:1–18Google Scholar
  27. Hughes SJ (1972) New Zealand Fungi 17. Pleomorphism in Cuantennariaceae and Metacapnodiaceae, two new families of sooty moulds. N Z J Bot 10:225–242Google Scholar
  28. Hughes SJ (1976) Sooty moulds. Mycologia 68:693–820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hughes SJ (2003) Capnofrasera dendryphioides, a new genus and species of sooty moulds. N Z J Bot 41:139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hyde KD, McKenzie EHC, KoKo TW (2011) Towards incorporating anamorphic fungi in a natural classification-checklist and notes for 2010. Mycosphere 2(1):1–88Google Scholar
  31. Katoh K, Asimenos G, Toh H (2009) Multiple alignment of DNA sequences with MAFFT. Meth Mol Biol 537:39–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA (2008) Dictionary of the Fungi, 10th edn. CABI Bioscience, UKGoogle Scholar
  33. Léveillé JH (1847) Mycologie, Mycétologie. In: D’Orbigny, Dictionnaire univ d’Hist nat 9:261–303Google Scholar
  34. Liu K, Raghavan S, Nelesen S, Linder CR, Warnow T (2009) Rapid and accurate large-scale coestimation of sequence alignments and phylogenetic trees. Science 324:1561–1564PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lumbsch HT, Huhndorf SM (2010) Outline of Ascomycota—2009. Fieldiana Life Earth Sci 1:1–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Matsushima T (2003) Matsushima Mycological Memoirs 9. Mats Mycol Mem 10:1–214Google Scholar
  37. Miller MA, Pfeiffer W, Schwartz T (2010) Creating the CIPRES Science Gateway for inference of large phylogenetic trees. In: Proceedings of the Gateway Computing Environments Workshop (GCE), 14 Nov. 2010, New Orleans, LA, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  38. Montagne C (1849) De Capnodio. novum fungorum genus. Ann Sci Nat Bot sér 3, 11:233–234Google Scholar
  39. Navarro-Rosines P, Gomez-Bolea A (1989) Rhagadostoma-Lichenicola (D. Not.) Keissler i Echinothecium reticulatum (Zopf) dos fongs liquenícoles nous per a la Península Ibèrica. Folia Bot Misc Barcelona 6:61–64Google Scholar
  40. Olejnik IM, Ingrouille M, Faull JL (1999) Numerical taxonomy of the sooty moulds Leptoxyphium. Caldariomyces and Aithaloderma based on micromorphology and physiology. Mycol Res 103:333–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pohlad BR (1988) Rhombostilbella parasitizing Chaetothyriaceae and Capnodiaceae. Mycologia 80(5):757–759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Reynolds DR (1975) Observation on growth forms of sooty mold fungi. Nova Hedwig 26:179–193Google Scholar
  43. Reynolds DR (1978) Foliicolous ascomycetes 2: Capnodium salicinum Montagne emend. Mycotaxon 7:501–507Google Scholar
  44. Reynolds DR (1979) Foliicolous ascomycetes: 3. The stalked capnodiaceous species. Mycotaxon 8(2):417–445Google Scholar
  45. Reynolds DR (1982) Foliicoloius Ascomycetes: 4. The capnodiaceous genus Trichomerium Spegazzini emend. Mycotaxon 14:189–220Google Scholar
  46. Reynolds DR (1986) Foliicolous ascomycetes 7. Phylogenetic systematics of the Capnodiaceae. Mycotaxon 27:377–403Google Scholar
  47. Reynolds DR (1998) Capnodiaceous sooty mold phylogeny. Can J Bot 76:2125–2130Google Scholar
  48. Reynolds DR (1999) Capnodium citri: the sooty mold fungi comprising the taxon concept. Mycopathologia 148:141–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Reynolds DR, Gilbert GS (2005) Epifoliar fungi from Queensland, Australia. Aust Syst Bot 18:265–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Reynolds DR, Gilbert GS (2006) Epifoliar fungi from Panama Cryptog. Myocol 27(3):249–270Google Scholar
  51. Ruibal C, Gueidan C, Selbmann L, Gorbushina AA, Crous PW, Groenewald JZ, Muggia L, Grube M, Isola D, Schoch CL, Staley JT, Lutzoni F, de Hoog GS (2009) Phylogeny of rock–inhabiting fungi related to Dothideomycetes. Stud Mycol 64:123–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Saccardo PA (1822) Sylloge fungorum1. Patavii: 83Google Scholar
  53. Saccardo PA, Sydow P (1899) Sylloge fungorum 14. Patavii: 1–1316Google Scholar
  54. Schlick-Steiner BC, Steiner FM, Konrad H, Seifert B, Christian E, Moder K, Stauffer C, Crozier RH (2008) Specificity and transmission mosaic of ant nest-wall fungi. Proc Nat Acad Sci 105:940–943PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Schoch CL, Shoemaker RA, Seifert KA, Hambleton S, Spatafora JW, Crous PW (2007) A multigene phylogeny of the Dothideomycetes using four nuclear loci. Mycologia 98:1041–1052CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Schoch CL, Crous PW, Groenewald JZ, Boehm EW, Burgess TI, de Gruyter J, de Hoog GS, Dixon LJ, Grube M, Gueidan C, Harada Y, Hatakeyama S, Hirayama K, Hosoya T, Huhndorf SM, Hyde KD, Jones EB, Kohlmeyer J, Kruys A, Li YM, Lucking R, Lumbsch HT, Marvanova L, Mbatchou JS, McVay AH, Miller AN, Mugambi GK, Muggia L, Nelsen MP, Nelson P, Owensby CA, Phillips AJ, Phongpaichit S, Pointing SB, Pujade-Renaud V, Raja HA, Plata ER, Robbertse B, Ruibal C, Sakayaroj J, Sano T, Selbmann L, Shearer CA, Shirouzu T, Slippers B, Suetrong S, Tanaka K, Volkmann-Kohlmeyer B, Wingfield MJ, Wood AR, Woudenberg JH, Yonezawa H, Zhang Y, Spatafora JW (2009) A class-wide phylogenetic assessment of Dothideomycetes. Stud Mycol 64:1–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sivanesan A (1984) The bitunicate ascomycetes. Cramer, VaduzGoogle Scholar
  58. Spegazzini C (1918) Notas Micológicas. Physis (Buenos Aires) 4:281–295Google Scholar
  59. Stamatakis A (2006) RAxML-VI-HPC: maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses with thousands of taxa and mixed models. Bioinformatics 22:2688–2690PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Stamatakis A, Hoover P, Rougemont J (2008) A rapid bootstrap algorithm for the RAxML Web Servers. Syst Biol 57:758–771PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Stevens FL (1930) Parasitic fungi of British Guiana, Trinidad and Costa Rica. Ann Mycol 28(5/6):346–371Google Scholar
  62. Sutton BC (1977) Coelomycetes VI. Nomenclature of generic names proposed for Coelomycetes. Mycol Pap 141:1–253Google Scholar
  63. Sydow H, Sydow P (1913) Novae fugorum species-X. Ann Mycol 11:254–271Google Scholar
  64. Von Arx JA, Müller E (1975) A re-evaluation of the bitunicate ascomycetes with keys to families and genera. Stud Mycol 9:1–159Google Scholar
  65. von Höhnel F (1909) Fragmente zur Mykologie VIII. Sitzungsberichten der kaiserlichen Kaiserl. Akad Wiss Math-Naturwiss Cl Abt1 118:1157–1246Google Scholar
  66. von Höhnel F (1910) Fragmente zur Mykologie (Xi Mitteilung, Nr. 527 bis 573). Sitsungsber, Kaiserl. Akad Wiss Math-Naturwiss Cl Abt 1 119:618–679Google Scholar
  67. Woronichin NN (1926) Zur Kenntnis der Morphologie und Systematik der Russtaupilze Transkaukasiens. Ann Mycol 24(3/4):231–264Google Scholar
  68. Wu HX, Schoch CL, Boonmee S, Bahkali AH, Chomnunti P, Hyde KD (2011) A reappraisal of Microthyriaceae. Fungal Divers (In press)Google Scholar
  69. Yamamoto W (1954) Taxonomic studies on the Capnodiaceae 2 On the species of the Eucapnodiae. Ann Phytopath Soc Japan 19(1–2):1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kevin D. Hyde 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Putarak Chomnunti
    • 1
    • 2
  • Conrad L. Schoch
    • 3
  • Begoña Aguirre-Hudson
    • 4
  • Thida W. Ko-Ko
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sinang Hongsanan
    • 1
    • 2
  • E. B. Gareth Jones
    • 5
  • Rampai Kodsueb
    • 6
  • Rungtiwa Phookamsak
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ekachai Chukeatirote
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ali H. Bahkali
    • 7
  • Kevin D. Hyde
    • 1
    • 2
    • 7
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Excellence in Fungal ResearchMae Fah Luang UniversityChiang RaiThailand
  2. 2.School of ScienceMae Fah Luang UniversityChiang RaiThailand
  3. 3.National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of MedicineNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  4. 4.Jodrell Laboratory, Royal Botanic GardensRichmondUK
  5. 5.Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences (IOES), C308, Institute of Postgraduate Studies BuildingUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  6. 6.Faculty of Science and TechnologyPibulsongkram Rajabhat UniversityPhisanulokThailand
  7. 7.Botany and Microbiology DepartmentKing Saud University, College of ScienceRiyadhSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations