As part of an ongoing comprehensive inventory of Galapagos lichens, a first assessment of the morphology and anatomy of basidiolichens from the archipelago is presented here. It is the basis for further studies of the taxonomy, ecology and biogeography of this poorly known group of lichens. Four genera, all in Hygrophoraceae, can be distinguished: Acantholichen, Cora, Cyphellostereum and Dictyonema. Both Acantholichen and Cora are characterized by chroococcoid cyanobionts and a heteromerous thallus with a distinct upper cortex and photobiont layer. The monotypic Acantholichen pannarioides is entirely composed of small, branched, inflated squamules that appear densely pruinose because their cortical hyphae bear characteristically swollen, densely spinose end cells (acanthohyphidia); this species has never been observed fertile. The common Cora glabrata is foliose, forming large, radially zonate, conch-like, often tiled thalli, when fertile with circular lines of basidiocarps on its lower side. Dictyonema is distinguished by filamentous cyanobionts and distinctly filamentous thalli that are homomereous (i.e., not distinctly layered); all species of Dictyonema s.str. have trichomes (filamentose cyanobacterial photobionts) closely enveloped by fungal cells of a jigsaw pattern. In D. sericeum thallus filaments (i.e., individual fibrils) aggregate to form shelf-like structures similar in appearance to polyporoid bracket fungi; basidiocarps develop in irregular patches on the lower side of these shelves. In contrast, fibrils of D. schenkianum grow encrusting their substrate with irregularly to suberect trichomes, occasionally bearing basidiocarps dispersed across the thallus. Two other species in Galapagos show adpressed growth form and are described here as new: Dictyonema pectinatum, which is characterized by large parallel fibrils with paler, papillate tips, and D. galapagoense, characterized by thin trichomes of more squarrish elongate cells. The genus Cyphellostereum is represented by two species: the newly described C. imperfectum and an unnamed Cyphellostereum sp., both phenotypically similar to free-living cyanobacterial filaments. Cyphellostereum imperfectum has narrow photobiont filaments with irregular hyphal sheath leaving interspaces; macroscopically it shows a bluish green thallus with a distinct prothallus. Cyphellostereum sp. has a rather uncommon basidiolichen appearance: thin sctytonematoid fibrils surrounded by straight fungal cells forming shiny tufts. The new combination Cyphellostereum nitidum is also proposed. The ecology and taxonomy of Galapagos basidiolichens is briefly discussed and a key and short descriptions of all species are presented.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Aptroot A, Bungartz F (2007) The lichen genus Ramalina on the Galapagos. Lichenologist 39:519–542
Aptroot A, Sparrius LB (2009) Crustose Roccellaceae in the Galapagos Islands, with the new species Schismatomma spierii. Bryologist 111:559–666
Aptroot A, Sparrius LB, LaGreca S, Bungartz F (2008) Angiactis, a new crustose lichen genus in the family Roccellaceae with species from Bermuda, the Galapagos Islands, and Australia. Bryologist 111:510–516
Bungartz F (2008) Cyanolichens of the Galapagos Islands - The genera Collema and Leptogium. Sauteria: 139–158
Bungartz F, Iván Nugra-Salazar F, Arturo-López X, Ziemmeck F, Bates S (2008) Plantas no vasculares en Galapagos (líquenes, briofitos, y hongos): Nuevos registros, amenazadas y potencial como bioindicadores – una primera evaluación, pp. In: (Fcd), F. C. D., (Png), P. N. G. & (Ingala), I. N. G. (eds.) Informe Galapagos 2007–2008. Puerto Ayora, Galapagos, Ecuador
Bungartz F, Lücking R, Aptroot A (2009) The lichen family Graphidaceae in the Galapagos Islands. Nova Hedwigia 90:1–44
Bungartz F, Herrera HW, Jaramillo P, Tirado N, Jímenez-Uzcategui G, Ruiz D, Guézou A, Ziemmeck F (2010a) Charles Darwin Foundation Galapagos Species Checklist - Lista de Especies de Galapagos de la Fundación Charles Darwin. Charles Darwin Foundation / Fundación Charles Darwin, Puerto Ayora
Bungartz F, Ziemmeck F, Aptroot A, Nugra F (2010b) Checklist of Galapagos lichenized fungi - lista de especies de hongos liquenizados de Galapagos., pp. In Bungartz F, Herrera H, Jaramillo P, Tirado N, Jímenez-Uzcategui G, Ruiz D, Guézou A, Ziemmeck F (eds) Charles Darwin Foundation Galapagos species checklist - lista de especies de Galápagos de la Fundación Charles Darwin. Charles Darwin Foundation / Fundación Charles Darwin, Puerto Ayora, Galapagos: http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/ecological-groups/lichens/ Last updated 20 May 2010
Chaves JL, Lücking R, Sipman HJM, Umaña L, Navarro E (2004) A first assessment of the Ticolichen biodiversity inventory in Costa Rica: the genus Dictyonema (Polyorales: Atheliaceae). Bryologist 107:242–249
Dal Forno M, Lawrey J, Lücking R, Yánez A, Bungartz F (2011) A critical assessment of the genus and species concept in the basidiolichen genus Dictyonema s.l. Manuscript in preparation
Jørgensen PM (1998) Acantholichen pannarioides, a new basidiolichen from South America. Bryologist 101(3):444–447
Lawrey JD, Lücking R, Sipman HJM, Redhead SA, Bungartz F, Sikaroodi M, Gillevet PM (2009) High concentration of basidiolichens in a single family of agaricoid mushrooms (Basidiomycota: Agaricales: Hygrophoraceae). Mycol Res 113:1154–1171
Lücking R (2008) Foliicolous lichenized fungi. Flora neotropica. Volume 103. The New York Botanical Garden Press, Bronx
Lücking R, Lawrey JD, Sikaroodi M, Gillevet P, Chaves JL, Sipman HJM, Bungartz F (2009) Do lichens domesticate photobionts like farmers domesticate crops? Evidence from a previously unrecognized lineage of filamentous cyanobacteria. Am J Bot 96:1409–1418
Parmastro E (1978) The genus Dictyonema (“Terophorolichenes”). Nova Hedwigia 29:99–144
Snell HL, Stone PA, Snell HL (1996) A summary of geographical characteristics of the Galapagos Islands. J Biogeogr 23:619–624
Tehler A, Irestedt M, Bungartz F, Wedin M (2009) Evolution and reproduction modes in the Roccella galapagoensis aggregate (Roccellaceae, Arthoniales). Taxon 58:438–456
Trueman M, d’Ozouville N (2010) Characterizing the Galapagos terrestrial climate in the face of global climate change. Galapagos Research 67:26–37
Tye A, Snell HL, Peck SB, Adersen H (2002) Outstanding terrestrial features of the Galapagos Archipelago. In: Bensted-Smith R (ed) A biodiversity vision for the Galapagos Islands. Charles Darwin Foundation and World Wildlife Fund, Puerto Ayora, pp 25–35
We thank Frauke Ziemmeck for managing the cryptogam collection at CDS, helping with collecting, data entry and curating of specimens. Successive Directors of Science at the Charles Darwin Foundation have supported this project: Alan Tye, Mark Gardener, and Rodolfo Martinez. We are further indebted to the Galapagos National Park, especially its technical director Washington Tapia for support and specimen export permits. The Census of Galapagos Biodiversity and the CDF Checklist of Galapagos Species is supported by several grants to the Charles Darwin Foundation (donors cited at http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/). A checklist of Galapagos lichens is regularly updated and available at http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/lichens, where contributing scientists are acknowledged. The lichen inventory continues to receive funds from The Paul and Bay Foundations and the Erwin Warth Stiftung. In 2010 an international lichen workshop was held in Galapagos, supported by two National Science Foundation (NSF) projects entitled “Neotropical Epiphytic Microlichens - An Innovative Inventory of a Highly Diverse yet Little Known Group of Symbiotic Organisms” (DEB 0715660 to The Field Museum; PI Robert Lücking) and “Phylogenetic Diversity of Mycobionts and Photobionts in the Cyanolichen Genus Dictyonema, with Empasis on the Neotropics and the Galapagos Islands” (DEB 0841405 to George Mason University; PI James Lawrey, subcontract to the Charles Darwin Foundation, local coordinator Frank Bungartz). The latter grant continues to support the studies on basidiolichens in Galapagos. We thank Harald Jonitz for specimens collected in continental Ecuador available for this study. This publication is contribution number 2041 f the Charles Darwin Foundation for the Galapagos Islands.
About this article
Cite this article
Yánez, A., Dal-Forno, M., Bungartz, F. et al. A first assessment of Galapagos basidiolichens. Fungal Diversity 52, 225–244 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-011-0133-x
- Census of Galapagos Biodiversity
- Galapagos Lichen Inventory