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Nonimmune Hydrops Fetalis: Factors Which Predict Outcome


Aims and Objective

To evaluate the cause of NIHF cases referred to a tertiary referral center and to analyze the outcome.

Materials and Methods

A total of 130 cases of fetal hydrops registered during eight-year study period were reviewed. Antenatal ultrasound, blood investigations and postnatal fetal examination were done, and outcome was noted.


Out of 130 cases of NIHF, antenatal ultrasound showed the presence of structural malformations in 94/130 (72.3%), cardiac abnormality was the most common (34/130, 26.1%) and cystic hygroma was seen in 15/130 (11.5%). Chromosomal abnormality was observed in 15(11.5%) cases, and Doppler US showed anemia in 4/130 (3.1%) cases only. Live born were 25 (12.9%), and rest all were stillborn or abortion. Later mean gestational age of presentation (p = 0.0001), presence of gastrointestinal malformation (p = 0.0001) and absence of structural malformations (p = 0.0441) were factors significantly associated with live birth; the presence of cystic hygroma (p = 0.0431) or structural heart defect (p = 0.007) was significantly associated with poor outcome.


Fetal anemia was not a common cause of NIHF in the study population. The early onset of hydrops and presence of structural malformation carry a graver prognosis; type of structural defect also has bearing on outcome.

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Corresponding author

Correspondence to Manisha Kumar.

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Conflicts of interest

No conflict of interest among authors.

Human and Animals Rights

Due consents were taken from human participants, and there were no animal participants in the study.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was taken on predetermined proforma.

Additional information

Manisha Kumar is a Professor in Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India; Vandana Jha is a Senior Resident, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India; Anuradha Singh is an Associate Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India.

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Kumar, M., Jha, V. & Singh, A. Nonimmune Hydrops Fetalis: Factors Which Predict Outcome. J Obstet Gynecol India 68, 197–203 (2018).

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  • Nonimmune hydrops
  • Prenatal diagnosis
  • Ultrasound