Insulin resistance is one of the most common features of polycystic ovary syndrome, and some studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency may have role in insulin resistance.
To study the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the clinical, hormonal and metabolic profile of the PCOS women.
Randomized, placebo-controlled, interventional, double-blind study.
Materials and Methods
PCOS women were evaluated and enrolled after considering inclusion and exclusion criteria. They were randomized by block randomization with sealed envelope system done in two groups. In the study group (n = 25), patients were supplemented with vitamin D 60,000 IU weekly for 12 weeks, whereas control group (n = 25) was given placebo weekly for the same period. Both the groups were compared pre- and post-supplementation for variables like clinical profile, biochemical profile and metabolic profile. Statistical analysis was performed by the SPSS program for Windows, version 10.1 (SPSS, Chicago, IL).
In the study (n = 50), PCOS patients were enrolled; 34 patients (68%) were vitamin D deficient (≤20 ng/ml) out of which 10 patients (29%) were severely deficient (<10 ng/ml). Twelve patients (24%) were vitamin D insufficient showing high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the PCOS women. The difference in mean serum fasting glucose pre- and post-supplementation of vitamin D in study group was found to be statistically significant with p value of 0.041. There was significant difference seen in insulin resistance (IR) (2.38 ± 4.88–1.00 ± 0.58, p = 0.003), serum fasting insulin (10.34 ± 20.00–5.00 ± 3.25, p = 0.021), and increase in insulin sensitivity determined by QUICKI (0.37 ± 0.04–0.394 ± 0.009, p = 0.001) after supplementation with vitamin D.
The study concluded that there was a beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation on ovulatory dysfunctions and blood pressure. Post-supplementation, there were decrease in insulin resistance and increase in insulin sensitivity. In the study decreased serum fasting insulin level and fasting blood sugar after vitamin D supplementation suggest underlying role of vitamin D in glucose homeostasis.
This is a preview of subscription content,to check access.
Access this article
Tai K, Need AG, Horowitz M, Chapman IM. Vitamin D glucose, insulin, and insulin sensitivity. Nutrition. 2008;24:279–85.
Wehr E, Pilz S, Schweighofer N, Giuliani A, Kopera D, Pieber TR, et al. Association of hypovitaminosis D with metabolic disturbances in polycystic ovary syndrome. Eur J Endocrinol. 2009;161:575–82.
Yildizhan R, Kurdoglo M, Adali E, Kolusari A, Yildizhan B, Sahin HG, et al. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in obese and non obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Arch Gynaecol Obstet. 2009;280:559–63.
Khan NR, Shah J, Stetter CM, Lott Mary EJ, Kunselman D. High dose vitamin D supplementation and measures of insulin sensitivity in PCOS:a randomized controlled pilot trial. Fertil Steril. 2014;101(6):1740–6.
Li HWR, Brereton RE, Anderson RA, et al. Vitamin D deficiency is common and associated with metabolic risk factors in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Metab, Clin Exp. 2010;60:1475–81.
Ardabili HR, Gargari BP, Farzadi L. Vitamin D supplementation has no effect on insulin resistance assessment in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and vitamin D deficiency. Nutr Res. 2012;2012(32):195–201. doi:10.1016/j.nutres.02.001.
Lagunova Z, Porojnicu AC, Lindberg F, et al. The dependency of vitamin D status on body mass index, gender, age and season. Anticancer Res. 2009;29:3713–20.
Wehr E, Pieber TR, Obermayer-Pietsch B. Effect of vitamin D3 treatment on glucose metabolism and menstrual frequency in PCOS women—a pilot study. J Endocrinol Invest. 2011;34:757–63.
Forman JP, Curhan GC, Taylor EN. Plasma 25- hydroxyvitamin D levels and risk of incident hypertension among young women. Hypertension. 2008;52:828–32.
Pilz S, Tomaschitz A, Ritz E, Pieber TR. Vitamin D status and arterial hypertension: a systemic review. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2009;6:621–30.
Raishidi B, Haghollahi F, Shariat M, et al. The effects of calcium-vitamin D and Metformin on polycystic ovary syndrome; a pilot study. Taiwan J Obstetr Gynecol. 2009;48:142–7.
Kotsa K, Yavropoulou MP, Anastasiou O, Yovos JG. Role of vitamin D treatment in glucose metabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2009;92:1053–8.
Moscogiuri G, Policola C, Prioletta A et al. Low levels of 25(OH)D and insulin resistance: 2 unrelated features or a cause effect in PCOS? Clin Nutr 2012; PMID:22260937 [epub ahead of print].
Seglimoglu H, Duran C, Kiyici S, Ersoy C, Guclu M, Ozkaya G. The effect of vitamin D replacement therapy on insulin resistance and androgen levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Endocrinol Invest. 2010;33:234–8.
Wehr E, Trummer O, Giuliani A, et al. Vitamin D—associated polymorphisms are related to insulin resistance and vitamin D deficiency in polycystic ovary syndrome. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011;164:741–9.
Alvarez JA, Ashraf A. Role of vitamin D in insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity for glucose homeostasis. Int J Endocrinol. 2010; 351385. doi:1155/2010/351385.
This study was not funded by any outsource.
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Research Involving Human Participants
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
Taru Gupta is Professor and Academic Head, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ESI PGIMSR Basaidarapur, New Delhi, India; Mukta Rawat is a Postgraduate Student in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ESI PGIMSR Basaidarapur, New Delhi, India; Nupur Gupta is a Assistant Professor, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ESI PGIMSR Basaidarapur, New Delhi, India; Sarika Arora is Professor, Biochemistry, ESI PGIMSR Basaidarapur, New Delhi, India.
About this article
Cite this article
Gupta, T., Rawat, M., Gupta, N. et al. Study of Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on the Clinical, Hormonal and Metabolic Profile of the PCOS Women. J Obstet Gynecol India 67, 349–355 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13224-017-1008-1