The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India

, Volume 67, Issue 6, pp 409–413 | Cite as

Analyses of Nutrients and Body Mass Index as Risk Factor for Preeclampsia

  • Yusrawati
  • Nicko Pisceski Kusika Saputra
  • Nur Indrawati Lipoeto
  • Rizanda Machmud
Original Article



Little is known about the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Many factors are identified as risk factors for preeclampsia including nutrients and obesity. The aim of this study was to assess whether nutrients and body mass index (BMI) are risk factors for preeclampsia.


This was a case–control study at the Department of Obstetric and Gynecology in Dr. M. Djamil Hospital, Padang, Indonesia. A total of 140 patients were enrolled in this study with 70 cases and 70 controls. All subjects completed an interview for their nutritional status and prepregnancy BMI after delivery. The nutritional status was assessed by Food Frequency Questionnaire and then analyzed by Nutrisurvey Program. The independent samples t test was used for nutritional status, and Chi-square test was used for BMI. For nutrients, logistic regression procedures were employed to calculate potential risk factors associated with preeclampsia.


Prevalence of abnormal BMI was more common in the preeclampsia group compared with those without preeclampsia 19 (27.1%) versus 12 (17.1%) but not found as a significant risk factor in this study (p = 0.222). Deficiency of vitamin E (OR 1.76, 95% CI 10.2 ± 30.5), zinc (OR 99.4, 95% CI 1.37 ± 7219), fat (OR 59.1, 95% CI 3.14 ± 500), calcium (OR 109, 95% CI 0.29 ± 40,041), vitamin C (OR 19.5, 95% CI 2.52 ± 151) were associated with increased risk of preeclampsia. Excess of carbohydrate was associated with increased risk of preeclampsia (OR 52.9, 95% CI 0.801 ± 3495).


Deficiency of vitamin E, zinc, fat, calcium, and vitamin C, and excess of calories and carbohydrate were associated with increased risk of preeclampsia.


Body mass index Nutrition Preeclampsia Risk factor 



We thank staffs at RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang who facilitated us in data collection and for all the subjects that have agreed to participate in this study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Yusrawati, Nicko Pisceski Kusika Saputra, Nur Indrawati Lipoeto, Rizanda Machmud declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Right Statements

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008. The study was approved by the Research Ethics of the Dr. M. Djamil Hospital (Project Number PE.10.2014).

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in this study.


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Copyright information

© Federation of Obstetric & Gynecological Societies of India 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of MedicineAndalas UniversityPadangIndonesia
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of MedicineAndalas UniversityPadangIndonesia
  3. 3.Department of Nutrition, Faculty of MedicineAndalas UniversityPadangIndonesia
  4. 4.Department of Public Health, Faculty of MedicineAndalas UniversityPadangIndonesia

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