Skip to main content
Log in

Sol: An Agent-Based Framework for Cyber Situation Awareness

  • Fachbeitrag
  • Published:
KI - Künstliche Intelligenz Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

In this article, we describe how we augment human perception and cognition through Sol, an agent-based framework for distributed sensemaking. We describe how our visualization approach, based on IHMC’s OZ flight display, has been leveraged and extended in our development of the Flow Capacitor, an analyst display for maintaining cyber situation awareness, and in the Parallel Coordinates 3D Observatory (PC3O or Observatory), a generalization of the Flow Capacitor that provides capabilities for developing and exploring lines of inquiry. We then introduce the primary implementation frameworks that provide the core capabilities of Sol: the Luna Software Agent Framework, the VIA Cross-Layer Communications Substrate, and the KAoS Policy Services Framework. We show how policy-governed agents can perform much of the tedious high-tempo tasks of analysts and facilitate collaboration. Much of the power of Sol lies in the concept of coactive emergence, whereby a comprehension of complex situations is achieved through the collaboration of analysts and agents working together in tandem. Not only can the approach embodied in Sol lead to a qualitative improvement in cyber situation awareness, but its approach is equally relevant to applications of distributed sensemaking for other kinds of complex high-tempo tasks.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

Similar content being viewed by others

Notes

  1. OZ relates to the classic film “The Wizard of OZ” and is not an acronym.

  2. See [16] for a survey of visualization approaches for network situation awareness.

References

  1. Bergen JR (1991) Theories of visual texture perception. In: Regan D (ed) Spatial vision: vision and visual dysfunction, vol 10. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 71–92

    Google Scholar 

  2. Bradshaw JM, Feltovich P, Johnson M (2011) Human-agent interaction. In: Boy G (ed) Handbook of human-machine interaction. Ashgate, London, pp 283–302

    Google Scholar 

  3. Bradshaw JM (1997) An introduction to software agents. In: Bradshaw JM (ed) Software agents. AAAI Press/MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 3–46

    Google Scholar 

  4. Bradshaw JM (ed) (1997) Software agents. AAAI Press/MIT Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  5. Bradshaw JM, Carvalho M (2011) Policy services in the cloud: Leveraging dynamically-bounded emergence. In: Workshop on safe in the clouds: biologically-inspired approaches to system resilience and security, Ocala, FL, March 2011

    Google Scholar 

  6. Bratman J, Shvartsman M, Lewis RL, Singh S (2010) A new approach to exploring language emergence as boundedly optimal control in the face of environmental and cognitive constraints. In: Proceedings of the 10th international conference on cognitive modeling (ICCM)

    Google Scholar 

  7. Byrski A, Carvalho M (2008) Agent-based immunological intrusion detection system for mobile ad-hoc networks. In: Proceedings of the 8th international conference on computational science, Part III (ICCS ’08). Springer, Berlin, pp 584–593

    Google Scholar 

  8. Carvalho M (2009) A distributed reinforcement learning approach to mission survivability in tactical MANETs. In: Proceedings of the 5th annual workshop on cyber security and information intelligence research (CSIIRW ’09), New York, NY, USA, pp 1–4

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  9. Carvalho M, Dasgupta D, Grimaila M, Perez C (2011) Mission resilience in cloud computing: a biologically inspired approach. In: Proceedings of the sixth international conference on information warfare and security

    Google Scholar 

  10. Carvalho M, Granados A, Perez C, Arguedas M, Winkler R, Kovach J, Choy S (2009) A cross-layer communications susbtrate for tactical environments. In: P McDermott, L Allender (eds), Chap 5: Collaborative technologies alliance. Advanced decisions architecture

  11. Carvalho M, Granados A, Usbeck K, Loyall J, Gillen M, Sinclair A, Hanna JP (2011) Integrated information and network management for end-to-end quality of service. In: Proceedings of MILCOM

    Google Scholar 

  12. Carvalho M, Lamkin T, Perez C (2010) Organic resilience for tactical environments. In: 5th international ICST conference on bio-inspired models of network, information, and computing systems (Bionetics), Boston, MA, December

    Google Scholar 

  13. Carvalho M, Perez C (2011) An evolutionary multi-agent approach to anomaly an evolutionary multi-agent approach to anomaly detection and cyber defense. In: Proceedings of the 7th annual workshop on cyber security and information intelligence research (CSIIRW ’11), New York, NY, USA, September. ACM, New York

    Google Scholar 

  14. Carvalho M, Rebeschini M, Horsley J, Suri N, Cowin T, Breedy M (2005) MAST: intelligent roaming guards for network and host security. Scientia 16(2):125–138

    Google Scholar 

  15. Systems Cisco (2007) Netflow services solution guide. http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios/solutions_docs/netflow/nfwhite.pdf

  16. Eskridge TC, Lecoutre D, Johnson M, Bradshaw JM (2009) Network situation awareness: a representative study. In: Proceedings of the fourth workshop on human-computer interaction and visualization (HCIV 2009), Kaiserslautern, Germany, 2 March 2009

    Google Scholar 

  17. Feltovich P, Bradshaw JM, Jeffers R, Suri N, Uszok A (2004) Social order and adaptability in animal and human cultures as an analogue for agent communities: toward a policy-based approach. In: Engineering societies in the agents world IV. Lecture notes in artificial intelligence, vol 3071. Springer, Berlin, pp 21–48

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  18. Feltovich PJ, Bradshaw JM, Clancey WJ, Johnson M (2006) We regulate to coordinate: limits to human and machine joint activity. In: Proceedings of ESAW 2006, Dublin, Ireland, 6–8 September 2006

    Google Scholar 

  19. Feltovich PJ, Bradshaw JM, Clancey WJ, Johnson M, Bunch L (2008) Progress appraisal as a challenging element of coordination in human and machine joint activity. In: Artikis A, O’Hare GMP, Stathis K, Vouros G (eds) Engineering societies in the agents world VIII. Lecture notes in computer science. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 124–141

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  20. Ford KM, Bradshaw JM, Adams-Webber JR, Agnew NM (1993) Knowledge acquisition as a constructive modeling activity. In: Ford KM, Bradshaw JM (eds) Knowledge acquisition as modeling. Wiley, New York, pp 9–32

    Google Scholar 

  21. Cabri G, Leonardi L, Zambonelli F (2000) Weak and strong mobility in mobile agents applications. In: 2nd international conference and exhibition on the practical application of Java, April 2000

    Google Scholar 

  22. Hoffman R, Feltovich P, Ford KM, Woods DD, Klein G, Feltovich A (2002) A rose by any other name… would probably be given an acronym. IEEE Intelligent Systems, July–August 2002, pp 72–80

  23. Holland JH (1998) Emergence: from chaos to order. Addison-Wesley, Reading

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  24. Johnson M, Bradshaw JM, Feltovich P, Jonker C, van Riemsdijk B (2011, in press) The fundamental principle of coactive design: interdependence must shape autonomy. In: Proceedings of COIN. Springer, Berlin

  25. Johnson NE (1989) Mediating representations in knowledge elicitation. In: Diaper D (ed) Knowledge elicitation: principles, techniques and applications. Wiley, New York

    Google Scholar 

  26. Kaplan A (1963) The conduct of inquiry. Harper & Row, New York

    Google Scholar 

  27. Khronos Group (2011) http://www.khronos.org/opencl/

  28. Klein G, Feltovich PJ, Bradshaw JM, Woods DD (2004) Common ground and coordination in joint activity. In: Rouse WB, Boff KR (eds) Organizational simulation. Wiley, New York, pp 139–184

    Google Scholar 

  29. Klein G, Woods DD, Bradshaw JM, Hoffman R, Feltovich P (2004) Ten challenges for making automation a team player in joint human-agent activity. IEEE Intell Syst 19(6):91–95 November–December

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Langton CG (ed) (1989) Artificial life. Santa Fe institute studies in the sciences of complexity, vol 6. Addison-Wesley, Reading

    Google Scholar 

  31. Leibowitz H, Shupert CL (1984) Low luminance and spatial orientation. In: Proceedings of the tri-service aeromedical research panel fall technical meeting. NAMRL monograph, vol 33. Naval Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Pensacola, pp 97–104

    Google Scholar 

  32. Leibowitz H, Shupert CL, Post (1984) The two modes of visual processing: implications for spatial orientation. In Peripheral vision horizon display (PVHD), NASA conference publication 2306 (pp 41–44). Dryden Flight Research Facility, NASA Ames Research Center, Edwards Air Force Base, CA

  33. Lind M (1996) Perceiving motion and rigid structure from optic flow: a combined weak-perspective and polar-perspective approach. Percept Psychophys 58:1085–1102

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Lott J, Bradshaw JM, Uszok A, Jeffers R (2004) Using KAoS policy and domain services within Cougaar. Presented at the Proceedings of the open Cougaar conference, New York City, NY, 20 July 2004, pp 89–95

  35. Loyall J, Gillen M, Paulos A, Bunch L, Carvalho M, Edmondson J, Schmidt D, Martignoni A III, Sinclair A (2011) Dynamic policy-driven quality of service in service-oriented information management systems. Softw Pract Exp 41(12):1459–1489

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Moore DT (2011) Sensemaking: a structure for an intelligence revolution. Clift series on the intelligence profession. National Defense Intelligence College, Washington

    Google Scholar 

  37. Müller-Schloer C (2004) Organic computing on the feasibility of controlled emergence. In: Proceedings of the international conference on hardware/software codesign and system synthesis, CODES+ISSS ’04. IEEE Comput Soc, Washington, pp 2–5

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  38. Pollick FE (1997) The perception of motion and structure in structure-from-motion: comparisons of affine and Euclidean formulations. Vis Res 37:447–466

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Siddiqi K, Tresness KJ, Kimia BB (1996) Parts of visual form: psychophysical aspects. Perception 25:399–424

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Smith CF (2008) The effect of functional display information on the acquisition and transfer of novice piloting knowledge. PhD Dissertation in psychology. George Mason University, Fairfax,

  41. Smith CF, Boehm-Davis DA (2005) Improving novice flight performance using a functional flight display. In: Proceedings of the international symposium on aviation psychology 13th annual meeting, Oklahoma City, OK

    Google Scholar 

  42. Smith CF, Fadden S et al. (2005) Use of a functional avionics display under varying conditions of workload. In: Proceedings of the human factors and ergonomics society 49th annual meeting, Orlando, FL

    Google Scholar 

  43. Still DL, Temme LA (2003) OZ: A human-centered computing cockpit display. In: Interservice/industry training, simulation & education conference (I/ITSEC), Orlando, FL

    Google Scholar 

  44. Still DL, Eskridge TC, Temme LA (2004) Interface for non-pilot UAV control. In: Cooke NJ (ed) Human factors of UAVs workshop, Mesa, AZ

    Google Scholar 

  45. Temme LA, Still DL, Acromite M (2003) OZ: a human-centered computing cockpit display. In: 45th annual conference of the international military testing association, Pensacola, FL, pp 70–90

    Google Scholar 

  46. Thibos LN, Still DL, Bradley A (1996) Characterization of spatial aliasing and contrast sensitivity in peripheral vision. Vis Res 36:249–258

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Uszok A, Bradshaw JM, Breedy MR, Bunch L, Feltovich P, Johnson M, Jung H (2008) New developments in ontology-based policy management: increasing the practicality and comprehensiveness of KAoS. In: Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE conference on policy, Palisades, NY, 2008

    Google Scholar 

  48. Uszok A, Bradshaw JM, Lott J, Johnson M, Breedy M, Vignati M, Whittaker K, Jakubowski K, Bowcock J (2011) Toward a flexible ontology-based approach for network operations using the KAoS framework. In: Proceedings of MILCOM 2011, pp. 1108–1114

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  49. van Diggelen J, Bradshaw JM, Johnson M, Uszok A, Feltovich P (2009) Implementing collective obligations in human-agent teams using KAoS policies. In: Proceedings of workshop on coordination, organization, institutions and norms (COIN), IEEE/ACM conference on autonomous agents and multi-agent systems, Budapest, Hungary, 12 May

    Google Scholar 

  50. van Diggelen J, Johnson M, Bradshaw JM, Neerincx M, Grant T (2009) Policy-based design of human-machine collaboration in manned space missions. In: Proceedings of the third IEEE international conference on space mission challenges for information technology (SMC-IT), Pasadena, CA, 19–23 July

    Google Scholar 

  51. VanderHorn N, Haan B, Carvalho M, Perez C (2010) Distributed policy learning for the cognitive network management system. In: The 2010 military communications conference—unclassified program—cyber security and network management (MILCOM 2010-CSNM), San Jose, California, USA, November

    Google Scholar 

  52. Westerinen A (2011) Digital policy management: policy language overview. Presentation at the DPM meeting, 19 January 2011, updated 27 March, 2011

  53. Yin X, Yurcik W et al. (2004) VisFlowConnect: netflow visualizations of link relationships for security situational awareness. In: Proceedings of the 2004 ACM workshop on visualization and data mining for computer security, Washington DC, USA. ACM, New York

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jeffrey M. Bradshaw.

Additional information

Copyright © 2012 by the author(s). This paper may be reproduced, in its entirety, for non-commercial purposes.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Bradshaw, J.M., Carvalho, M., Bunch, L. et al. Sol: An Agent-Based Framework for Cyber Situation Awareness. Künstl Intell 26, 127–140 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13218-012-0179-2

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13218-012-0179-2

Keywords

Navigation