Analysis of the bacterial communities and endosymbionts of natural populations of Bemisia tabaci in several crop fields from Mexico semi-arid zone
- 169 Downloads
Bemisia tabaci (Aleyrodidae family) is an insect vector of plant viruses that affects a wide variety of crops around the world. In the following study, we analyzed the variation in the bacterial communities associated with natural populations of B. tabaci (MEAM1) of four different crops from six regions from Mexico semi-arid zone (Baja California Sur).
PCR was used to amplify the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (mtCOI), and then to carry out the phylogenetic analysis for genetic identification of the isolated B. tabaci. Next generation sequencing coupled with 16S metagenomic analysis was applied in order to characterize B. tabaci inner microbial community. Finally, bacterial obligate symbiont and facultative symbiont were confirmed by PCR amplification and by phylogenetic analysis.
Ours results pointed toward that B. tabaci MEAM1 inner bacterial communities were predominantly structured by Proteobacteria phylum. Moreover, the most represented endosymbionts were the obligate endosymbiont from the genus “Candidatus Portiera”, as well as two facultative symbionts belonging to genera Rickettsia and Hamiltonella; both obligate and facultative endosymbionts were present for all samples, and their relative abundance varied was crop-independent.
Geographic localization and insect diet play a central role to maintain bacterial community structure of the B. tabaci MEAM1 whitefly at phylum taxonomic level. Agricultural practices were a factor that affected samples of bacterial community structure similarities, reflected in samples clustering. Host plants that are part of B. tabaci diet did not influence directly, in spite of sap nutrient differences, into obligate and facultative endosymbionts relative abundance.
KeywordsBemisia tabaci Bacterial communities Endosymbiont Environmental factors
We thank Jaime Holguín-Peña, Martín Aguilar, Saúl Briceño for technical support for insect samples collections. Angel Carrillo-Garcia and Patricia Hinojosa-Baltazar for technical assistance. Paul Gaytan, Jorge Yañéz, and Eugenio López for primer synthesis and sequencing at Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Bruno Gomez-Gil for 16S V3 rDNA sequencing at Laboratorio de Genómica Microbiana, CIAD-Mazatlán, México.
The current investigation was supported by CONACYT/Mexico through the funds provided to CIBNOR.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Research involving human participants and/or animals
This research does not involve animals or humans.
- Azab AK, Megahed MM, E Mirsawi HD (1969) Studies on Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hemiptera Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Bull Entomol Soc Egypt 53:339–351Google Scholar
- Boykin LM, Shatters RG, Rosell RC, McKenzie CL, Bagnall RA, Bagnall RA, De Barro P (2007) Global relationships of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) revealed using Bayesian analysis of mitochondrial COI DNA sequences. Mol Phylogenet Evol 44:1306–1319. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2007.04.020 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Boykin LM, Bell CD, Evans G, Small I, Barro PJ (2013) Is agriculture driving the diversification of the Bemisia tabaci species complex (Hemiptera:sternorrhyncha:Aleyrodidae)?:dating diversification and biogeographic evidence revealed. BMC Evol Biol 13:228. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-13-228 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Coleman-Derr D, Desgarennes D, Fonseca-Garcia C, Gross S, Clingenpeel S, Woyke T, North G, Visel A, Partida-Martinez LP, Tringe SG (2016) Plant compartment and biogeography affect microbiome composition in cultivated and native Agave species. New Phytol 209:798–811. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.13697 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- De Barro PJ, Liu SS, Boykin LM, Dinsdale AB (2011) Bemisia tabaci: a statement of species status. Annu Rev Entomol 56:1–19. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ento-112408-085504 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Elfekih S, Etter P, Tay WT, Fumagalli M, Gordon K, Johnson E, De Barro P (2018) Genome-wide analyses of the Bemisia tabaci specie complex reveal contrasting patterns of admixture and complex demographic histories. PLoS One 13(1):e0190555. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0190555 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Gnankiné O, Mouton L, Henri H, Terraz G, Houndeté T, Martin T, Vavre F, Fleury F (2013) Distribution of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera:Aleyrodidae) biotypes and their associated symbiotic bacteria on host plants in West Africa. Insect Conserv Divers 6:411–421. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-4598.2012.00206.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kearse M, Moir R, Wilson A, Stones-Havas S, Cheung M, Sturrock S, Buxton S, Cooper A, Markowitz S, Duran C, Thierer T, Ashton B, Meintjes P, Drummond A (2012) Geneious basic: an integrated and extendable desktop software platform for the organization and analysis of sequence data. Bioinformatics 28(12):1647–1649. https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bts199 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Li YH, Ahmed MZ, Li SJ, Lv N, Shi PQ, Chen XS, Qiu BL (2017a) Plant mediated horizontal transmission of Rickettsia endosymbiont between different whitefly species. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 93(12). https://doi.org/10.1093/femsec/fix138
- Meyer F, Paarmann D, D’Souza M, Olson R, Glass EM, Kubal M, Paczian T, Rodriguez A, Stevens R, Wilkening J, Edwards RA (2008) The metagenomics RAST server –a public resource for the automatic phylogenetic and functional analysis of metagenomes. BMC Bioinformatics 19(9):386. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-9-386 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Oksanen J, Blanchet FG, Kindt R, Legendre P, Minchin PR, O’hara RB, Simpson GL, Solymos P, Stevens MHH, Wagner H (2014) Vegan: community ecology package. R package version 2.2-0. http://CRAN.Rproject.org/package=vegan
- Pan H, Su Q, Jiao X, Zhou L, Liu B, Xie W, Wang S, Wu Q, Xu B, Zhang Y (2013) Relative amount of symbionts in Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) Q changes with host plant and establishing the method of analyzing free amino acid in B. tabaci. Commun Integr Biol 6:e23397. https://doi.org/10.4161/cib.23397 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Shatters RG, Powell C, Boykin LM, Liansheng H, McKenzie CL (2009) Improved DNA barcoding method for Bemisia tabaci and related Aleyrodidae:development of universal and Bemisia tabaci biotype specific mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I polymerase chain reaction primers. J Econ Entomol 102:750–758. https://doi.org/10.1603/029.102.0236 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Su Q, Xie W, Wang S, Wu Q, Liu B, Fang Y, Zhang Y (2014) The endosymbiont Hamiltonella increases the growth rate of its host Bemisia tabaci during periods of nutritional stress. PloS one 9(2):e89002. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089002
- Vijayakumar MM, More RP, Rangasamy A, Gandhi GR, Muthugounder M, Thiruvengadam V, Samaddar S, Jalali S, Sa T (2018) Gut bacterial diversity of insecticide-susceptible and resistant nymphs of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens stal (Hemiptera:Delphacidae) and the elucidation of their putative functional roles. J Microbiol Biotechnol 28:976–986. https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1711.11039 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhu YX, Song YL, Zhang YK, Hoffmann AA, Zhou JC, Sun JT, Hong XY (2018) Incidence of facultative bacterial endosymbionts in spider mites associated with local environments and host plants. Appl Environ Microbiol 84(6):e02546–e02517. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02546-17 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar