Surface properties and exopolysaccharide production of surface-associated microorganisms isolated from a dairy plant
The purpose of this study was to isolate the surface-associated microorganisms from the dairy plant surfaces with a high probability of biofilm formation and determine the most adhesive strains in terms of surface properties and exopolysaccharide production.
Four hundred and ninety-five surface-associated microorganisms were isolated from potential biofilm-forming surfaces of a dairy plant. One hundred and seventy of these were isolated after cleaning/disinfection of the pasteurized milk, white cheese and butter tank, yogurt and ice cream filling unit, ice cream air pressing, and condensed milk pipe. It is noteworthy that some isolates might cause post-production contamination, food infection, and intoxication. Selected 42 isolates were identified by Gram staining, physiological and biochemical tests, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Then, surface properties and exopolysaccharide production of 10 selected isolates were determined. To evaluate the surface properties, microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons, static water contact angle, salt aggregation, and surface zeta potential tests were performed.
The microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH) test exhibited the lowest standard deviations, and the most consistent results between the replicates. The highest hydrophilic characteristics and exopolysaccharide production were exhibited by Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, followed by Gram-positive Bacillus toyonensis. Also, a significant diversity of neutral sugar was determined in their alditol acetate forms by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. In this context, it is believed that the determination of the EPS content of the isolates would contribute to establishing an effective cleaning/disinfection procedure for dairy plants.
This study indicated that microbial adhesion is still a common problem in the dairy industry. Because of this situation, dairy plants should be organized and constructed to be suitable for hygiene and sanitary applications.
KeywordsDairy plant Adhesion Identification Surface property Exopolysaccharide production Neutral sugar content
This work was supported by the Hacettepe University Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit (Project Codes: 014 D01 602 003 and FDK-2016-13096).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Research involving human participants and/or animals
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- Abasolo-Pacheco F, Saucedo PE, Mazon-Suastegui JM et al (2015) Isolation and use of beneficial microbiota from the digestive tract of lions-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus and winged pearl oyster Pteria sterna in oyster aquaculture. Aquac Res:1–10. https://doi.org/10.1111/are.12754
- Bağcı U (2012) Determination of some important properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from human milk based on food technology. Dissertation, Hacettepe University, Graduate School of Science and EngineeringGoogle Scholar
- Barnes RL, Caskey DK (2002) Using ozone in the prevention of bacterial biofilm formation and scaling. In: Water cond purification, technical report. October, vol 44, pp 1–3Google Scholar
- Hamadi F, Latrache H (2008) Comparison of contact angle measurement and microbial adhesion to solvents for assaying electron donor – electron acceptor (acid – base) properties of bacterial surface. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 65:134–139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2008.03.010 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Harrigan WF (1998) Laboratory methods in food microbiology. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
- Kwaszewska AK, Brewczyńska A, Szewczyk EM (2006) Hydrophobicity and biofilm formation of lipophilic skin corynebacteria. Polish J Microbiol 55:189–193Google Scholar
- Marshall KC (1992) Biofilms: an overview of bacterial adhesion activity and control at surfaces. Am Soc Microbiol 58:202–207Google Scholar
- Nel HA, Bauer R, Wolfaardt GM, Dicks LMT (2002) Effect of bacteriocins pediocin PD-1, plantaricin 423, and nisin on biofilms of Oenococcus oeni on a stainless steel surface. Am J Enol Vitic 53:191–196Google Scholar
- Obuekwe CO, Al-Jadi ZK, Al-Saleh ES (2009) Hydrocarbon degradation in relation to cell-surface hydrophobicity among bacterial hydrocarbon degraders from petroleum-contaminated Kuwait desert environment. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 63:273–279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2008.10.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Saini G (2010) Bacterial hydrophobicity: assessment techniques, applications and extension to colloids. Dissertation, Oregon State University, Chemical EngineeringGoogle Scholar
- Strathmann M, Wingender J, Flemming HC (2002) Application of fluorescently labelled lectins for the visualization and biochemical characterization of polysaccharides in biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Microbiol Methods 50:237–248. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-7012(02)00032-5 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Suzuki C, Kobayashi M, Kimoto-nira H (2013) Novel exopolysaccharides produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, and the diversity of epsE genes in the exopolysaccharide biosynthesis gene clusters. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 77:2013–2018. https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb.130322 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Temiz A (2010) Genel Mikrobiyoloji Uygulama Teknikleri. Hatipoğlu Yayınları, AnkaraGoogle Scholar
- Triandafillu K, Balazs DJ, Aronsson BO et al (2003) Adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains to untreated and oxygen-plasma treated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) from endotracheal intubation devices. Biomaterials 24:1507–1518. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0142-9612(02)00515-X CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Valeriano C, de Oliveira TLC, de Carvalho SM et al (2012) The sanitizing action of essential oil-based solutions against Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis S64 biofilm formation on AISI 304 stainless steel. Food Control 25:673–677. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2011.12.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yang Z (2000) Antimicrobial compounds and extracellular polysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria: structures and properties. Dissertation, University of Helsinki, Department of Food TechnologyGoogle Scholar