Annals of Microbiology

, Volume 64, Issue 1, pp 267–274 | Cite as

Biomass hydrolyzing enzymes from plant pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae: optimizing production and characterization

  • Dolamani Amat
  • Anju AroraEmail author
  • Lata Nain
  • Anil Kumar Saxena
Original Article


Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae strain—a potent plant pathogen that causes blight disease in pomegranate—was screened for cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzyme production. This strain produced endo-β-1,4-glucanase, filter paper lyase activity (FPA), β-glucosidase and xylanase activities. Enzyme production was optimized with respect to major nutrient sources like carbon and nitrogen. Carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) was a better inducer for FPA, CMCase and xylanase production, while starch was found to be best for cellobiase. Soybean meal/yeast extract at 0.5 % were better nitrogen sources for both cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzyme production while cellobiase and xylanase production was higher with peptone. Surfactants had no significant effect on levels of extracellular cellulases and xylanases. A temperature of 28 °C and pH 6–8 were optimum for production of enzyme activities. Growth under optimized conditions resulted in increases in different enzyme activities of around 1.72- to 5-fold. Physico-chemical characterization of enzymes showed that they were active over broad range of pH 4–8 with an optimum at 8. Cellulolytic enzymes showed a temperature optimum at around 55 °C while xylanase had highest activity at 45 °C. Heat treatment of enzyme extract at 75 °C for 1 h showed that xylanase activity was more stable than cellulolytic activities. Xanthomonas enzyme extracts were able to act on biologically pretreated paddy straw to release reducing sugars, and the amount of reducing sugars increased with incubation time. Thus, the enzymes produced by X. axonopodis pv. punicae are more versatile and resilient with respect to their activity at different pH and temperature. These enzymes can be overproduced and find application in different industries including food, pulp and paper and biorefineries for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass.


Lignocellulosic biomass Cellulases Xylanase Xanthomonas Plant pathogen 



D.A. is thankful to the Post Graduate School, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India for providing a fellowship towards an MSc programme.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary Fig. 1 (DOCX 83.1 kb)
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Supplementary Fig. 2 (DOCX 124 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg and the University of Milan 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dolamani Amat
    • 1
  • Anju Arora
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lata Nain
    • 1
  • Anil Kumar Saxena
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of MicrobiologyIndian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia

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