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Exosomal microRNAs (exoMIRs): micromolecules with macro impact in oral cancer

Abstract

Exosomes are a sub-population of extracellular vesicles. It is released from all types of cells and are observed to be involved in cellular communications. It contains DNA, RNA, proteins and lipids. Tumor-derived exosomes can modify the tumor micro-environment and promote tumor development. Exosomal miRNAs are functionally linked with cancer progression, metastasis, and aggressive tumor phenotypes. In this review, we initially discuss on the fundamental biology of exosomes and then summarize the recent understanding of the exosomal miRNAs in oral cancer with various biological events. Moreover, the dynamic impact of exosomal miRNAs in the oral cancer micro-environment and their multiple parameter alterations can lead to (i) increased uncontrolled cell proliferation, (ii) oral cancer angiogenesis, (iii) oral cancer metastasis, (iv) drug resistance in oral cancer, (v) reprogramming of the immune system in oral cancer, and (vi) clinical significance of exosomal miRNA in oral cancer detection. Exosomes research can pave way to identify early detection tools in future and personalized medicine development for oral cancer. Thus, our review provides an informative biological insight into exosomal miRNAs in oral cancer, which can benefit the researchers working in the corresponding domain.

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Data sharing is not applicable—no new data are generated. Data sharing does not apply to this article as no new data were created or analyzed in this study.

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Correspondence to Arikketh Devi.

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Dhar, R., Mallik, S. & Devi, A. Exosomal microRNAs (exoMIRs): micromolecules with macro impact in oral cancer. 3 Biotech 12, 155 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-022-03217-z

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-022-03217-z

Keywords

  • Exosomes
  • miRNAs
  • Oral cancer