Grain hardness is the single most important trait in determining technological properties and end-use quality of wheat product. This trait is controlled by two genes (Pina—D1 and Pinb—D1) at the Hardness (Ha) locus. Soft endosperm kernels are characterized by the presence of alleles ‘a' in both genes (Pina-D1a and Pinb-D1a), while the medium hard and hard grain is the result of deletion in the Pina-D1 gene or single mutation of the Pinb-D1 gene. The aim of the current study was to determine the relationship between common wheat grain hardness and the presence of puroindoline genes. Eighty-one spring common wheat cultivars from Europe were analysed for grain hardness by SKCS (Single Kernel Characterization System) and Pin—D1 genes. The analysed genotypes were divided into three hardness classes: hard, medium and soft and they showed four allelic combinations in Pin-D1 genes. The SKCS results showed that hard wheat was the major type in European cultivars, whereas molecular analysis showed differential allelic combinations of puroindoline genes among these classes. The conducted analyses suggest that another major gene or other factors were influencing kernel texture.
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Supplementary file1 Supplementary Figure 1. PCR product of primer set H1 specific for Pina-D1a. Lines: M–100 bp DNA Ladder Plus, 1–Kamelia, 2–Nimfa, 3–Ostka Smolicka, 4–Rusałka, 5–Serenada, 6–Koksa, 7–Korynta, 8–Nawra, 9–Harenda, 10–Izera, 11–Parabola, 12–Łagwa, 13–Żura, 14–Rospuda, 15–Zadra, 16–Werbena, 17–Arabella, 18–Goplana, 19–Kandela, 20–KWS Mistral, 21–KWS Scirocco, 22–KWS Solanus, 23–Monsun, 24–Taifun, 25–Trappe, 26–Vanék, 27–Conil, 28–Escacena, 29–Jerezano, 30–Tejada (TIF 457 kb)
Supplementary file2 Supplementary Figure 2 PCR product of primer set H4 specific for Pinb-D1a. Lines: M – 100 bp DNA Ladder Plus, 1–Kamelia, 2–Nimfa, 3–Ostka Smolicka, 4–Rusałka, 5–Serenada, 6 –Koksa, 7–Korynta, 8–Nawra, 9–Harenda, 10–Izera, 11–Parabola, 12–Łagwa, 13–Żura, 14–Rospuda, 15–Zadra, 16–Werbena, 17–Arabella, 18–Goplana, 19–Kandela (TIF 294 kb)
Supplementary file3 Supplementary Figure 3 PCR product of primer set H5 specific for Pinb-D1b. Lines: M – 100 bp DNA Ladder Plus, 1–Kamelia, 2–Nimfa, 3–Ostka Smolicka, 4–Rusałka, 5–Serenada, 6–Koksa, 7–Korynta, 8–Nawra, 9–Harenda, 10–Izera, 11–Parabola, 12–Łagwa, 13–Żura, 14–Rospuda, 15–Zadra, 16–Werbena, 17–Arabella, 18–Goplana, 19–Kandela (TIF 364 kb)
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Nucia, A., Okoń, S., Tomczyńska-Mleko, M. et al. Molecular and physical characterization of grain hardness in European spring common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). 3 Biotech 11, 345 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-021-02897-3
- European spring common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
- Kernel hardness
- Puroindoline genes