3 Biotech

, 8:216 | Cite as

Recent advances in conventional and contemporary methods for remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils

  • Swati Sharma
  • Sakshi Tiwari
  • Abshar Hasan
  • Varun Saxena
  • Lalit M. Pandey
Review Article


Remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils has been drawing our attention toward it for quite some time now and a need for developing new methods toward reclamation has come up as the need of the hour. Conventional methods of heavy metal-contaminated soil remediation have been in use for decades and have shown great results, but they have their own setbacks. The chemical and physical techniques when used singularly generally generate by-products (toxic sludge or pollutants) and are not cost-effective, while the biological process is very slow and time-consuming. Hence to overcome them, an amalgamation of two or more techniques is being used. In view of the facts, new methods of biosorption, nanoremediation as well as microbial fuel cell techniques have been developed, which utilize the metabolic activities of microorganisms for bioremediation purpose. These are cost-effective and efficient methods of remediation, which are now becoming an integral part of all environmental and bioresource technology. In this contribution, we have highlighted various augmentations in physical, chemical, and biological methods for the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils, weighing up their pros and cons. Further, we have discussed the amalgamation of the above techniques such as physiochemical and physiobiological methods with recent literature for the removal of heavy metals from the contaminated soils. These combinations have showed synergetic effects with a many fold increase in removal efficiency of heavy metals along with economic feasibility.


Heavy metals Contaminated soils Nanoremediation Microbial fuel cells Biosorption 



The authors would like to thank the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, for financial supports (Sanction nos: DST/INSPIRE/04/2014/002020, ECR/2016/001027).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest in the publication of this article.


  1. Abbas SH, Ismail IM, Mostafa TM, Sulaymon AH (2014) Biosorption of heavy metals: a review. J Chem Sci Tech 3(4):74–102Google Scholar
  2. Abbas SZ, Rafatullah M, Ismail N, Syakir MI (2017) A review on sediment microbial fuel cells as a new source of sustainable energy and heavy metal remediation: mechanisms and future prospective. Int J Energy Res 41(9):1242–1264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmad M, Rajapaksha AU, Lim JE, Zhang M, Bolan N, Mohan D, Vithanage M, Lee SS, Ok YS (2014) Biochar as a sorbent for contaminant management in soil and water: a review. Chemosphere 99:19–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akanang H, Adamu H (2017) The potential of cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata) as bioremediation tool of heavy metals contaminated soil. Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 40 (1)Google Scholar
  5. Albers CN, Jacobsen OS, Flores EM, Johnsen AR (2017) Arctic and subarctic natural soils emit chloroform and brominated analogues by alkaline hydrolysis of trihaloacetyl compounds. Environ Sci Technol 51(11):6131–6138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alghanmi SI, Al Sulami AF, El-Zayat TA, Alhogbi BG, Salam MA (2015) Acid leaching of heavy metals from contaminated soil collected from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: kinetic and thermodynamics studies. Int Soil Water Conserv Res 3(3):196–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ali AY, Idris AM, Ebrahim AM, Eltayeb MA (2017) Brown algae (Phaeophyta) for monitoring heavy metals at the Sudanese Red Sea coast. Appl Water Sci 1–8Google Scholar
  8. Alvarez A, Saez JM, Costa JSD, Colin VL, Fuentes MS, Cuozzo SA, Benimeli CS, Polti MA, Amoroso MJ (2017) Actinobacteria: current research and perspectives for bioremediation of pesticides and heavy metals. Chemosphere 166:41–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Aryal M, Liakopoulou-Kyriakides M (2015) Bioremoval of heavy metals by bacterial biomass. Environ Monit Assess 187(1):4173. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Asadzadeh F, Maleki-Kaklar M, Soiltanalinejad N, Shabani F (2018) Central composite design optimization of zinc removal from contaminated soil, using citric acid as biodegradable chelant. Sci Rep 8(1):2633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Aziz HA, Adlan MN, Ariffin KS (2008) Heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu and Cr(III)) removal from water in Malaysia: Post treatment by high quality limestone. Bioresour Technol 99(6):1578–1583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Banerjee S, Gothalwal R, Sahu PK, Sao S (2015) Microbial observation in bioaccumulation of heavy metals from the Ash dyke of thermal power plants of Chhattisgarh, India. Adv Biosci Biotechnol 06(02):131–138. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Banerjee A, Sarkar P, Banerjee S (2016) Application of statistical design of experiments for optimization of As (V) biosorption by immobilized bacterial biomass. Ecol Eng 86:13–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bang J, Kamala-Kannan S, Lee KJ, Cho M, Kim CH, Kim YJ, Bae JH, Kim KH, Myung H, Oh BT (2015) Phytoremediation of heavy metals in contaminated water and soil using Miscanthus sp. Goedae-Uksae 1. Int J Phytoremediation 17(1–6):515–520. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bañuelos G, Zambrzuski S, Mackey B (2000) Phytoextraction of selenium from soils irrigated with selenium-laden effluent. Plant Soil 224(2):251–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bhogle CS, Pandit AB (2017) Ultrasound-assisted alkaline hydrolysis of waste poly (ethylene terephthalate) in aqueous and non-aqueous media at low temperature. Indian Chemical Engineer 1–19Google Scholar
  17. Bizily SP, Rugh CL, Summers AO, Meagher RB (1999) Phytoremediation of methylmercury pollution: merB expression in Arabidopsis thaliana confers resistance to organomercurials. Proc Natl Acad Sci 96(12):6808–6813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Boros-Lajszner E, Wyszkowska J, Kucharski J (2018) Use of zeolite to neutralise nickel in a soil environment. Environ Monit Assess 190(1):54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bradley D (2017) Rockcress against heavy metal. Mater Today 1(20):6–7Google Scholar
  20. Brooks RR (1998) Plants that hyperaccumulate heavy metals: their role in phytoremediation, microbiology, archaeology, mineral exploration, and phytominingGoogle Scholar
  21. Camenzuli D, Wise LE, Stokes AJ, Gore DB (2017) Treatment of soil co-contaminated with inorganics and petroleum hydrocarbons using silica: implications for remediation in cold regions. Cold Reg Sci Technol 135:8–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chabukdhara M, Gupta SK, Gogoi M (2017) Phycoremediation of heavy metals coupled with generation of bioenergy. In: Algal Biofuels. Springer, pp 163–188Google Scholar
  23. Chaudhary A, Shirodkar S, Sharma A (2017) Characterization of nickel tolerant bacteria isolated from heavy metal polluted glass industry for its potential role in bioremediation. Soil Sediment Contam: Int J 26(2):184–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chen H, Cutright TJ (2003) Preliminary evaluation of microbially mediated precipitation of cadmium, chromium, and nickel by rhizosphere consortium. J Environ Eng 129(1):4–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chen M, Xu P, Zeng G, Yang C, Huang D, Zhang J (2015) Bioremediation of soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum, pesticides, chlorophenols and heavy metals by composting: applications, microbes and future research needs. Biotechnol Adv 33(6):745–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chen X, Liu X, Zhang X, Cao L, Hu X (2017) Phytoremediation effect of Scirpus triqueter inoculated plant-growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) on different fractions of pyrene and Ni in co-contaminated soils. J Hazard Mater 325:319–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chibuike G, Obiora S (2014) Heavy metal polluted soils: effect on plants and bioremediation methods. Applied and Environmental Soil Science 2014Google Scholar
  28. Çolak F, Atar N, Yazıcıoğlu D, Olgun A (2011) Biosorption of lead from aqueous solutions by Bacillus strains possessing heavy-metal resistance. Chem Eng J 173(2):422–428. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Colozza N, Gravina MF, Amendola L, Rosati M, Akretche DE, Moscone D, Arduini F (2017) A miniaturized bismuth-based sensor to evaluate the marine organism Styela plicata bioremediation capacity toward heavy metal polluted seawater. Sci Total Environ 584:692–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Congeevaram S, Dhanarani S, Park J, Dexilin M, Thamaraiselvi K (2007) Biosorption of chromium and nickel by heavy metal resistant fungal and bacterial isolates. J Hazard Mater 146(1):270–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dabrowski A, Hubicki Z, Podkościelny P, Robens E (2004) Selective removal of the heavy metal ions from waters and industrial wastewaters by ion-exchange method. Chemosphere 56(2):91–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Das N, Vimala R, Karthika P (2008) Biosorption of heavy metals—an overview. Indian J Biotechnol 7(2):159–169Google Scholar
  33. de la Rosa G, Peralta-Videa JR, Montes M, Parsons JG, Cano-Aguilera I, Gardea-Torresdey JL (2004) Cadmium uptake and translocation in tumbleweed (Salsola kali), a potential Cd-hyperaccumulator desert plant species: ICP/OES and XAS studies. Chemosphere 55(9):1159–1168. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Dermont G, Bergeron M, Mercier G, Richer-Laflèche M (2008) Soil washing for metal removal: a review of physical/chemical technologies and field applications. J Hazard Mater 152(1):1–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dil EA, Ghaedi M, Ghezelbash GR, Asfaram A, Purkait MK (2017) Highly efficient simultaneous biosorption of Hg2+, Pb2+ and Cu2+ by Live yeast Yarrowia lipolytica 70562 following response surface methodology optimization: Kinetic and isotherm study. J Ind Eng Chem 48:162–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dixit R, Wasiullah EY, Malaviya D, Pandiyan K, Singh U, Sahu A, Shukla R, Singh B, Rai J, Sharma P, Lade H, Paul D (2015) Bioremediation of heavy metals from soil and aquatic environment: an overview of principles and criteria of fundamental processes. Sustainability 7(2):2189–2212. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dourado M, Martins P, Quecine M, Piotto F, Souza L, Franco M, Tezotto T, Azevedo R (2013) Burkholderia sp. SCMS54 reduces cadmium toxicity and promotes growth in tomato. Ann Appl Biol 163(3):494–507Google Scholar
  38. Duda-Chodak A, Wajda L, Tarko T (2013) The immobilization of Arthrospira platensis biomass in different matrices—a practical application for lead biosorption. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 48(5):509–517. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Dushenkov S (2003) Trends in phytoremediation of radionuclides. Plant Soil 249(1):167–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Elicker C, Sanches Filho P, Castagno K (2014) Electroremediation of heavy metals in sewage sludge. Braz J Chem Eng 31(2):365–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Elloumi N, Belhaj D, Mseddi S, Zouari M, Abdallah FB, Woodward S, Kallel M (2017) Response of Nerium oleander to phosphogypsum amendment and its potential use for phytoremediation. Ecol Eng 99:164–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. El-Masry MH, El-Bestawy E, El-Adl NI (2004) Bioremediation of vegetable oil and grease from polluted wastewater using a sand biofilm system. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 20(6):551–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Emmrich M (1999) Kinetics of the alkaline hydrolysis of 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene in aqueous solution and highly contaminated soils. Environ Sci Technol 33(21):3802–3805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Esmaeili A, Saremnia B, Kalantari M (2015) Removal of mercury (II) from aqueous solutions by biosorption on the biomass of Sargassum glaucescens and Gracilaria corticata. Arabian J Chem 8(4):506–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Espinosa-Ortiz EJ, Shakya M, Jain R, Rene ER, van Hullebusch ED, Lens PN (2016) Sorption of zinc onto elemental selenium nanoparticles immobilized in Phanerochaete chrysosporium pellets. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23(21):21619–21630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Falciglia PP, Malarbì D, Greco V, Vagliasindi FG (2017) Surfactant and MGDA enhanced-electrokinetic treatment for the simultaneous removal of mercury and PAHs from marine sediments. Sep Purif Technol 175:330–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Friesl W, Horak O, Wenzel WW (2004) Immobilization of heavy metals in soils by the application of bauxite residues: pot experiments under field conditions. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 167(1):54–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gabr RM, Hassan SHA, Shoreit AAM (2008) Biosorption of lead and nickel by living and non-living cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ASU 6a. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 62(2):195–203. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gamalero E, Glick BR (2011) Mechanisms used by plant growth-promoting bacteria. In: Bacteria in agrobiology: plant nutrient management. Springer, pp 17–46Google Scholar
  50. Gao J, Luo Q-S, Zhu J, Zhang C-B, Li B-Z (2013a) Effects of electrokinetic treatment of contaminated sludge on migration and transformation of Cd, Ni and Zn in various bonding states. Chemosphere 93(11):2869–2876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gao J, Luo Q, Zhang C, Li B, Meng L (2013b) Enhanced electrokinetic removal of cadmium from sludge using a coupled catholyte circulation system with multilayer of anion exchange resin. Chem Eng J 234:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Garbisu C, Alkorta I (2003) Basic concepts on heavy metal soil bioremediation. ejmp & ep (European Journal of Mineral Processing and Environmental Protection) 3 (1):58–66Google Scholar
  53. Glick BR (2010) Using soil bacteria to facilitate phytoremediation. Biotechnol Adv 28(3):367–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Grujić S, Vasić S, Radojević I, Čomić L, Ostojić A (2017) Comparison of the Rhodotorula mucilaginosa biofilm and planktonic culture on heavy metal susceptibility and removal potential. Water Air Soil Pollut 228(2):73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Guarino C, Sciarrillo R (2017) Effectiveness of in situ application of an integrated phytoremediation system (IPS) by adding a selected blend of rhizosphere microbes to heavily multi-contaminated soils. Ecol Eng 99:70–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Haimi J (2000) Decomposer animals and bioremediation of soils. Environ Pollut 107(2):233–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Han X, Gong YF, Wong YS, Tam NF (2014) Cr(III) removal by a microalgal isolate, Chlorella miniata: effects of nitrate, chloride and sulfate. Ecotoxicology 23(4):742–748. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. He J, Chen JP (2014) A comprehensive review on biosorption of heavy metals by algal biomass: materials, performances, chemistry, and modeling simulation tools. Bioresour Technol 160:67–78. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Henry JR (2000) Overview of the Phytoremediation of lead and mercury. In: Overview of the phytoremediation of lead and mercury. EPAGoogle Scholar
  60. Huang W, Liu ZM (2013) Biosorption of Cd(II)/Pb(II) from aqueous solution by biosurfactant-producing bacteria: isotherm kinetic characteristic and mechanism studies. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 105:113–119. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Huang T, Peng Q, Yu L, Li D (2017) The detoxification of heavy metals in the phosphate tailing contaminated soil through sequential microbial pretreatment and electrokinetic remediation. Soil Sediment Contam: Int J 26(3):308–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ibuot A, Dean AP, McIntosh OA, Pittman JK (2017) Metal bioremediation by CrMTP4 over-expressing Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in comparison to natural wastewater-tolerant microalgae strains. Algal Res 24:89–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Iram S, Abrar S (2015) Biosorption of copper and lead by heavy metal resistant fungal isolates. Int J Sci Res Publ 5(1):1–5Google Scholar
  64. Islam MN, Taki G, Nguyen XP, Jo YT, Kim J, Park JH (2017) Heavy metal stabilization in contaminated soil by treatment with calcined cockle shell. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24(8):7177–7183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Iyer A, Mody K, Jha B (2005) Biosorption of heavy metals by a marine bacterium. Mar Pollut Bull 50(3):340–343. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Khan FI, Husain T, Hejazi R (2004) An overview and analysis of site remediation technologies. J Environ Manage 71(2):95–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kim W-S, Kim S-O, Kim K-W (2005) Enhanced electrokinetic extraction of heavy metals from soils assisted by ion exchange membranes. J Hazard Mater 118(1–3):93–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kim D-H, Ryu B-G, Park S-W, Seo C-I, Baek K (2009) Electrokinetic remediation of Zn and Ni-contaminated soil. J Hazard Mater 165(1):501–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kong Z, Mohamad OA, Deng Z, Liu X, Glick BR, Wei G (2015) Rhizobial symbiosis effect on the growth, metal uptake, and antioxidant responses of Medicago lupulina under copper stress. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22(16):12479–12489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kuffner M, De Maria S, Puschenreiter M, Fallmann K, Wieshammer G, Gorfer M, Strauss J, Rivelli A, Sessitsch A (2010) Culturable bacteria from Zn-and Cd-accumulating Salix caprea with differential effects on plant growth and heavy metal availability. J Appl Microbiol 108(4):1471–1484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kulakovskaya T, Ryazanova L, Zvonarev A, Khokhlova G, Ostroumov V, Vainshtein M (2018) The biosorption of cadmium and cobalt and iron ions by yeast Cryptococcus humicola at nitrogen starvation. Folia Microbiol 1–4Google Scholar
  72. Kvesitadze G, Khatisashvili G, Sadunishvili T, Ramsden JJ (2006) Biochemical mechanisms of detoxification in higher plants: basis of phytoremediation. Springer Science & Business MediaGoogle Scholar
  73. Kwak HW, Kim MK, Lee JY, Yun H, Kim MH, Park YH, Lee KH (2015) Preparation of bead-type biosorbent from water-soluble Spirulina platensis extracts for chromium (VI) removal. Algal Res 7:92–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lakkireddy K, Kües U (2017) Bulk isolation of basidiospores from wild mushrooms by electrostatic attraction with low risk of microbial contaminations. AMB Express 7(1):28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ledin M, Krantz-Rülcker C, Allard B (1999) Microorganisms as metal sorbents: comparison with other soil constituents in multi-compartment systems. Soil Biol Biochem 31(12):1639–1648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Leštan D, C-l Luo, X-d Li (2008) The use of chelating agents in the remediation of metal-contaminated soils: a review. Environ Pollut 153(1):3–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Li S, Wang W, Liang F, W-x Zhang (2017a) Heavy metal removal using nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI): theory and application. J Hazard Mater 322:163–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Li X, Dai L, Zhang C, Zeng G, Liu Y, Zhou C, Xu W, Wu Y, Tang X, Liu W (2017b) Enhanced biological stabilization of heavy metals in sediment using immobilized sulfate reducing bacteria beads with inner cohesive nutrient. J Hazard Mater 324:340–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Li Z, Wang L, Meng J, Liu X, Xu J, Wang F, Brookes P (2018) Zeolite-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron: new findings on simultaneous adsorption of Cd (II), Pb(II), and As (III) in aqueous solution and soil. J Hazard Mater 344:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ma Y, Prasad M, Rajkumar M, Freitas H (2011) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and endophytes accelerate phytoremediation of metalliferous soils. Biotechnol Adv 29(2):248–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Madhaiyan M, Poonguzhali S, Sa T (2007) Metal tolerating methylotrophic bacteria reduces nickel and cadmium toxicity and promotes plant growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.). Chemosphere 69(2):220–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Mahmoud ME, Yakout AA, Abdel-Aal H, Osman MM (2012) High performance SiO2-nanoparticles-immobilized-Penicillium funiculosum for bioaccumulation and solid phase extraction of lead. Bioresour Technol 106:125–132. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Mallampati SR, Mitoma Y, Okuda T, Simion C, Lee BK (2015) Dynamic immobilization of simulated radionuclide 133 Cs in soil by thermal treatment/vitrification with nanometallic Ca/CaO composites. J Environ Radioact 139:118–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Manasi Rajesh V, Rajesh N (2014) Adsorption isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamic studies towards understanding the interaction between a microbe immobilized polysaccharide matrix and lead. Chem Eng J 248:342–351. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Mani D, Kumar C (2013) Biotechnological advances in bioremediation of heavy metals contaminated ecosystems: an overview with special reference to phytoremediation. Int J Environ Sci Technol (Tehran) 11(3):843–872. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Manikandan R, Sahi SV, Venkatachalam P (2015) Impact assessment of mercury accumulation and biochemical and molecular response of Mentha arvensis: a potential hyperaccumulator plant. Sci World J 2015:715217. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Mateos LM, Villadangos AF, Alfonso G, Mourenza A, Marcos-Pascual L, Letek M, Pedre B, Messens J, Gil JA (2017) The arsenic detoxification system in corynebacteria: basis and application for bioremediation and redox control. Adv Appl Microbiol 99:103–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Mathew AM (2005) Phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. Oklahoma State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  89. McIntyre T (2003) Phytoremediation of heavy metals from soils. In: Phytoremediation. Springer, pp 97–123Google Scholar
  90. Nagarajah R, Wong KT, Lee G, Chu KH, Yoon Y, Kim NC, Jang M (2017) Synthesis of a unique nanostructured magnesium oxide coated magnetite cluster composite and its application for the removal of selected heavy metals. Sep Purif Technol 174:290–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Naik MM, Dubey S (2017) Lead-and mercury-resistant marine bacteria and their application in lead and mercury bioremediation. in: marine pollution and microbial remediation. Springer, pp 29–40Google Scholar
  92. Navarro A, Cardellach E, Cañadas I, Rodríguez J (2013) Solar thermal vitrification of mining contaminated soils. Int J Miner Process 119:65–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Nayak A, Bhushan B, Gupta V, Sharma P (2017) Chemically activated carbon from lignocellulosic wastes for heavy metal wastewater remediation: effect of activation conditions. J Colloid Interface Sci 493:228–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Olaniran AO, Balgobind A, Pillay B (2013) Bioavailability of heavy metals in soil: impact on microbial biodegradation of organic compounds and possible improvement strategies. Int J Mol Sci 14(5):10197–10228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Oves M, Khan MS, Zaidi A (2013) Biosorption of heavy metals by Bacillus thuringiensis strain OSM29 originating from industrial effluent contaminated north Indian soil. Saudi J Biol Sci 20(2):121–129. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Özdemir S, Kilinc E, Poli A, Nicolaus B, Güven K (2012) Cd, Cu, Ni, Mn and Zn resistance and bioaccumulation by thermophilic bacteria, Geobacillus toebii subsp. decanicus and Geobacillus thermoleovorans subsp. stromboliensis. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 28(1):155–163. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Özdemir S, Kılınç E, Poli A, Nicolaus B (2013) Biosorption of heavy metals (Cd2+, Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+) by thermophilic bacteria, Geobacillus thermantarcticus and Anoxybacillus amylolyticus: equilibrium and kinetic studies. Biorem J 17(2):86–96. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Park B, Son Y (2017) Ultrasonic and mechanical soil washing processes for the removal of heavy metals from soils. Ultrason Sonochem 35:640–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Park JH, Bolan N, Megharaj M, Naidu R (2011) Isolation of phosphate solubilizing bacteria and their potential for lead immobilization in soil. J Hazard Mater 185(2):829–836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Patel PC, Goulhen F, Boothman C, Gault AG, Charnock JM, Kalia K, Lloyd JR (2007) Arsenate detoxification in a Pseudomonad hypertolerant to arsenic. Arch Microbiol 187(3):171–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Peng G, Tian G (2010) Using electrode electrolytes to enhance electrokinetic removal of heavy metals from electroplating sludge. Chem Eng J 165(2):388–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Puyen ZM, Villagrasa E, Maldonado J, Diestra E, Esteve I, Sole A (2012) Biosorption of lead and copper by heavy-metal tolerant Micrococcus luteus DE2008. Bioresour Technol 126:233–237. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Radziemska M (2018) Study of applying naturally occurring mineral sorbents of Poland (dolomite halloysite, chalcedonite) for aided phytostabilization of soil polluted with heavy metals. CATENA 163:123–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Radziemska M, Gusiatin Z, Bilgin A (2017) Potential of using immobilizing agents in aided phytostabilization on simulated contamination of soil with lead. Ecol Eng 102:490–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Rajamohan N, Rajasimman M, Dilipkumar M (2014) Parametric and kinetic studies on biosorption of mercury using modified Phoenix dactylifera biomass. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 45(5):2622–2627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Rajendran P, Muthukrishnan J, Gunasekaran P (2003) Microbes in heavy metal remediation. Indian J Exp Biol 41(9):935–944PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Rani MJ, Hemambika B, Hemapriya J, Kannan VR (2010) Comparative assessment of heavy metal removal by immobilized and dead bacterial cells: a biosorption approach. Afr J Environ Sci Technol 4(2):077–083Google Scholar
  108. Rascio N, Navari-Izzo F (2011) Heavy metal hyperaccumulating plants: how and why do they do it? And what makes them so interesting? Plant Sci 180(2):169–181. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Rees F, Germain C, Sterckeman T, Morel J-L (2015) Plant growth and metal uptake by a non-hyperaccumulating species (Lolium perenne) and a Cd-Zn hyperaccumulator (Noccaea caerulescens) in contaminated soils amended with biochar. Plant Soil. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Rozas EE, Mendes MA, Nascimento CA, Espinosa DC, Oliveira R, Oliveira G, Custodio MR (2017) Bioleaching of electronic waste using bacteria isolated from the marine sponge Hymeniacidon heliophila (Porifera). J Hazard Mater 329:120–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sakakibara M, Watanabe A, Inoue M, Sano S, Kaise T (2010) Phytoextraction and phytovolatilization of arsenic from As-contaminated soils by Pteris vittata. In: Proceedings of the annual international conference on soils, sediments, water and energy. vol 1. p 26Google Scholar
  112. Salt DE, Smith RD, Raskin I (1998) Phytoremediation. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 49(1):643–668. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Selvankumar T, Radhika R, Mythili R, Arunprakash S, Srinivasan P, Govarthanan M, Kim H (2017) Isolation, identification and characterization of arsenic transforming exogenous endophytic Citrobacter sp. RPT from roots of Pteris vittata. 3. Biotech 7(4):264Google Scholar
  114. Senoro DB, Godezano JB, Wan M-W, Tayo LL, Sauli Z, Aris H (2017) Effects of pH and concentration on the capability of E. coli and S. epidermidis with bentonite clay as biosorbent for the removal of copper, nickel and lead from polluted water. In: EPJ Web of Conferences. EDP Sciences, p 01081Google Scholar
  115. Shen Y, Li H, Zhu W, Ho S-H, Yuan W, Chen J, Xie Y (2017) Microalgal-biochar immobilized complex: a novel efficient biosorbent for cadmium removal from aqueous solution. Bioresour Technol 244:1031–1038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Shi W, Liu C, Ding D, Lei Z, Yang Y, Feng C, Zhang Z (2013) Immobilization of heavy metals in sewage sludge by using subcritical water technology. Bioresour Technol 137:18–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Singh A, Ward OP (2004) Biotechnology and bioremediation—an overview. In: Biodegradation and Bioremediation. Springer, pp 1–17Google Scholar
  118. Srinath T, Verma T, Ramteke P, Garg S (2002) Chromium (VI) biosorption and bioaccumulation by chromate resistant bacteria. Chemosphere 48(4):427–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Strouhal M, Kizek R, Vacek J, Trnková L, Němec M (2003) Electrochemical study of heavy metals and metallothionein in yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. Bioelectrochemistry 60(1–2):29–36. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Sun L, Cao X, Li M, Zhang X, Li X, Cui Z (2017) Enhanced bioremediation of lead-contaminated soil by Solanum nigrum L. with Mucor circinelloides. Environ Sci Pollut Res 1–9Google Scholar
  121. Suthar S, Sajwan P, Kumar K (2014) Vermiremediation of heavy metals in wastewater sludge from paper and pulp industry using earthworm Eisenia fetida. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 109:177–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Taiwo A, Gbadebo A, Oyedepo J, Ojekunle Z, Alo O, Oyeniran A, Onalaja O, Ogunjimi D, Taiwo O (2016) Bioremediation of industrially contaminated soil using compost and plant technology. J Hazard Mater 304:166–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Terry N, Carlson C, Raab T, Zayed AM (1992) Rates of selenium volatilization among crop species. J Environ Qual 21(3):341–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Tian S, Lu L, Labavitch J, Yang X, He Z, Hu H, Sarangi R, Newville M, Commisso J, Brown P (2011) Cellular sequestration of cadmium in the hyperaccumulator plant species Sedum alfredii. Plant Physiol 157(4):1914–1925. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. Tiwari S, Hasan A, Pandey LM (2017) A novel bio-sorbent comprising encapsulated Agrobacterium fabrum (SLAJ731) and iron oxide nanoparticles for removal of crude oil co-contaminant, lead Pb(II). J Environ Chem Eng 5(1):442–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Touceda-González M, Álvarez-López V, Prieto-Fernández Á, Rodríguez-Garrido B, Trasar-Cepeda C, Mench M, Puschenreiter M, Quintela-Sabarís C, Macías-García F, Kidd P (2017) Aided phytostabilisation reduces metal toxicity, improves soil fertility and enhances microbial activity in Cu-rich mine tailings. J Environ Manage 186:301–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Tsekova K, Kaimaktchiev A, Tzekova A (2014) Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by microorganisms. Biotechnol Biotechnol Equip 12(2):94–96. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Valenzuela C, Campos V, Yañez J, Zaror C, Mondaca M (2009) Isolation of arsenite-oxidizing bacteria from arsenic-enriched sediments from Camarones River, Northern Chile. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 82(5):593–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Valls M, De Lorenzo V (2002) Exploiting the genetic and biochemical capacities of bacteria for the remediation of heavy metal pollution. FEMS Microbiol Rev 26(4):327–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Velasquez L, Dussan J (2009) Biosorption and bioaccumulation of heavy metals on dead and living biomass of Bacillus sphaericus. J Hazard Mater 167(1–3):713–716. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Venkatachalam P, Jayaraj M, Manikandan R, Geetha N, Rene ER, Sharma N, Sahi S (2017) Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) alleviate heavy metal-induced toxicity in Leucaena leucocephala seedlings: a physiochemical analysis. Plant Physiol Biochem 110:59–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Visoottiviseth P, Francesconi K, Sridokchan W (2002) The potential of Thai indigenous plant species for the phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated land. Environ Pollut 118(3):453–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Wang J, Chen C (2009) Biosorbents for heavy metals removal and their future. Biotechnol Adv 27(2):195–226. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Wang J-Y, Zhang D-S, Stabnikova O, Tay J-H (2005a) Evaluation of electrokinetic removal of heavy metals from sewage sludge. J Hazard Mater 124(1):139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Wang LK, Hung Y-T, Shammas NK (2005b) Physicochemical treatment processes, vol 3. Springer, Humana PressGoogle Scholar
  136. Wang T, Sun H, Mao H, Zhang Y, Wang C, Zhang Z, Wang B, Sun L (2014) The immobilization of heavy metals in soil by bioaugmentation of a UV-mutant Bacillus subtilis 38 assisted by NovoGro biostimulation and changes of soil microbial community. J Hazard Mater 278:483–490. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Wen J, Peng Z, Liu Y, Fang Y, Zeng G, Zhang S (2018) A case study of evaluating zeolite, CaCO 3, and MnO 2 for Cd-contaminated sediment reuse in soil. J Soils Sed 18(1):323–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Wu G, Kang H, Zhang X, Shao H, Chu L, Ruan C (2010) A critical review on the bio-removal of hazardous heavy metals from contaminated soils: issues, progress, eco-environmental concerns and opportunities. J Hazard Mater 174(1–3):1–8. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Wu Q, Cui Y, Li Q, Sun J (2015) Effective removal of heavy metals from industrial sludge with the aid of a biodegradable chelating ligand GLDA. J Hazard Mater 283:748–754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Wuana RA, Okieimen FE (2011) Heavy metals in contaminated soils: a review of sources, chemistry, risks and best available strategies for remediation. ISRN Ecology 2011:1–20. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Xu Y (2017) Stabilization of heavy metal-contaminated sediment with a chelator and humic acid mixture. Water Air Soil Pollut 228(1):20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Xu P, Zeng GM, Huang DL, Lai C, Zhao MH, Wei Z, Li NJ, Huang C, Xie GX (2012) Adsorption of Pb(II) by iron oxide nanoparticles immobilized Phanerochaete chrysosporium: equilibrium, kinetic, thermodynamic and mechanisms analysis. Chem Eng J 203:423–431. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Xue S, Chen Y, Reeves RD, Baker AJ, Lin Q, Fernando DR (2004) Manganese uptake and accumulation by the hyperaccumulator plant Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. (Phytolaccaceae). Environ Pollut 131(3):393–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Xue X, Hanna K, Despas C, Wu F, Deng N (2009) Effect of chelating agent on the oxidation rate of PCP in the magnetite/H2O2 system at neutral pH. J Mol Catal A: Chem 311(1):29–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Yao Z, Li J, Xie H, Yu C (2012) Review on remediation technologies of soil contaminated by heavy metals. Procedia Environmental Sciences 16:722–729. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Yoo J-C, Lee C, Lee J-S, Baek K (2017) Simultaneous application of chemical oxidation and extraction processes is effective at remediating soil co-contaminated with petroleum and heavy metals. J Environ Manage 186:314–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Yuan Y, Chai L, Yang Z, Yang W (2017) Simultaneous immobilization of lead, cadmium, and arsenic in combined contaminated soil with iron hydroxyl phosphate. J Soils Sed 17(2):432–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Zahoor M, Irshad M, Rahman H, Qasim M, Afridi SG, Qadir M, Hussain A (2017) Alleviation of heavy metal toxicity and phytostimulation of Brassica campestris L. by endophytic Mucor sp. MHR-7. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 142:139–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Zhu H, Fu Y, Jiang R, Yao J, Xiao L, Zeng G (2014) Optimization of copper(II) adsorption onto novel magnetic calcium alginate/maghemite hydrogel beads using response surface methodology. Ind Eng Chem Res 53(10):4059–4066. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Zouboulis AI, Loukidou MX, Matis KA (2004) Biosorption of toxic metals from aqueous solutions by bacteria strains isolated from metal-polluted soils. Process Biochem 39(8):909–916. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bio-Interface & Environmental Engineering Lab, Department of Biosciences and BioengineeringIndian Institute of TechnologyGuwahatiIndia

Personalised recommendations