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Extraction, antioxidant, and anticancer activity of saponins extracted from Curcuma angustifolia

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The purpose of this study was to examine the phytochemicals (qualitatively) and extract the saponins compound from the root of Curcuma angustifolia and evaluate the antioxidant and anticancer potential of the extracted crude saponins. According to qualitative phytochemical analysis, the aqueous and ethanol root extracts contained numerous phytochemicals such as alkaloid, flavonoid, triterpenoid, phenolic compound, carbohydrates, saponins, steroids, glycosides, tannin, and chlorogenic compounds. Saponins were suspected to be the major compound, so they were extracted from the root using a cold-ethanol extraction method and confirmed by a foam test. On -2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and nitric oxide (NO) assays, the extracted crude saponins demonstrated excellent antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner. At 100 µg mL−1 concentrations, the maximum antioxidant percentages for DPPH, H2O2, and nitric oxide were found to be 83.05 2.0%, 65.93 1.0%, and 85.16 1.3%, respectively. In addition, the IC50 values for these assays were discovered to be 62.65, 77.27, and 55.30 µg mL−1, respectively. These scavenging percentages and IC50 values were almost identical to the positive control's antioxidant activity. Furthermore, these crude saponins exhibited significant anticancer activity against MCF-7 cell line as 79.20% at a concentration of 320 g mL−1, with an IC50 value of 166.66 g mL−1. These findings suggest that crude saponins extracted from the root of C. angustifolia have excellent pharmaceutical potential and should be purified and tested in vivo for further confirmation.

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The author acknowledges the Periyar University PG Extension Centre, Dharmapuri, Tamil Nadu, India for providing partial laboratory support to complete the work. This project was supported by Researchers Supporting Project number (RSP-2021/383) King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

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Correspondence to Vijayakumar Natesan.

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Brindhadevi, K., Chidambaram, M., Kavitha, R. et al. Extraction, antioxidant, and anticancer activity of saponins extracted from Curcuma angustifolia. Appl Nanosci 13, 2063–2071 (2023).

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