Skip to main content

Inelasticity of nanocomposite based on ferromagnetic Fe–Ni–Co–Ti alloy after thermomechanical treatment


This paper presents the results of mechanical tests under a uniaxial tension of a nanocomposite obtained as a result precipitation hardening in the process of ageing of quenched ferromagnetic Fe-27.2%Ni-17.4%Co-5.2%Ti (wt%) alloy, having the martensitic, austenitic, or mixed structure of matrix after cooling and/or applied stress. To obtain the nanocomposite, the alloy samples were subjected to a preliminary thermomechanical treatment (TMT), which consisted of multiple drawing operations followed by quenching in water from 1373 K and ageing at 923 K for 5, 10, and 20 min. As a result of such TMT, a sufficiently high level of superelastic deformation and shape memory effect were achieved. It was experimentally established that the preliminary TMT, consisting of drawing with compression degree 22.5% followed by quenching and ageing at 923 K for 5–10 min, favors the deformation of the nanocomposite along the channels of phase and twinning plasticity in the range of testing temperature Ms < Tt < Af, and corresponds to the optimal combination of maximum superelastic strain and shape memory effect. A further increase in the degree of deformation results in inhibition of martensitic transformation and reducing of superelastic deformation by decreasing the austenite grain size and increasing the density of crystal defects.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3



Shape memory


Shape memory effect


Shape memory alloy


Thermomechanical treatment


Superelasticity, superelastic


Martensitic transformations


Scanning electron microscopy


  1. Chumlyakov YI, Kireeva IV, Panchenko EY, Zakharova G, Kirillov VA, Efimenko SP, Sehitoglu H (2004) Shape memory effects in FeNiCoTi single crystals undergoing c M a. thermoelastic martensitic transformations. Doklady Phys 49(1):47–50

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Edalati K, Toh S, Furuta T, Kuramoto S, Watanabe M, Horita Z (2012) Development of ultrahigh strength and high ductility in nanostructured iron alloys with lattice softening and nanotwins. Scripta Materialia 67(5):511–514.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Hornbogen E, Jost N, Alloys of iron and reversibility of martensitic transformations, European symposium on martensitic transformation and shape memory properties, J Phys IV France, 1991, 01(C4):C4-199–C4-210

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Kireeva IV, Chumlyakov YI, Kirillov VA, Karaman I, Cesari E (2011) Orientation and temperature dependence of superelasticity caused by reversible γ-α′ martensitic transformations in FeNiCoAlTa single crystals. Tech Phys Lett 37:487–490.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Kokorin VV (1987) Martensite transformation in inhomogeneous solid solutions. Naukova Dumka, Kiev, p 165 ​ (in Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  6. Kokorin VV, Kozlova LE, Titenko AN et al (2008) Characteristics of thermoelastic martensitic transformation in ferromagnetic Fe-Co-Ni-Ti alloys alloyed with Cu. Phys Metals Metallogr 105(6):564.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Koval' YuM, Lobodyuk VA (2006) The deformation phenomena at martensitic transformations. Usp Fiz Met 7(2):53–116. Russian)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Otsuka K, Wayman CM (1998) Mechanism of shape memory effect and superelasticity. In: Otsuka K, Wayman CM (eds) Shape memory materials. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 27–48

    Google Scholar 

  9. Otsuka K, Saxena A, Deng J, Ren X (2011) Mechanism of the shape memory effect in martensitic alloys: an assessment. Phil Mag 91(36):4514–4535.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Sehitoglu H, Jun J, Zhang X, Karaman I, Chumlyakov Y, Maier HJ, Gall K (2001a) Shape memory and pseudoelastic behavior of 51.5% Ni–Ti single crystals in solutionized and overaged state. Acta Mater 49:3609–3620

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Sehitoglu H, Karaman I, Zhang XY, Chumlyakov Y, Maier HJ (2001b) Deformation of FeNiCoTi shape memory single crystals. Scr Mater 44(5):779–784.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Tanaka Y, Himuro Y, Kainuma R, Sutou Y, Omori T, Ishida K (2010) Ferrous polycrystalline shape-memory alloy showing huge superelasticity. Science 327(5972):1488–1490.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Titenko AN, Demchenko LD (2012) Superelastic deformation in polycrystalline Fe–Ni–Co–Ti–Cu alloys. J Mater Eng Perform 21(12):2525–2529

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Titenko A, Perekos A, Demchenko L, Babanli M, Nizameyev M, Huseynov S (2018a) Magnetic behaviour of the ferromagnetic Fe–Ni–Co–Ti alloy subjected to thermomechanical treatment. Metallofiz Noveishie Tekhnol 40(9):1209–1220. Russian)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Titenko A, Demchenko L, Kozlova L, Babanli M (2018b) Effect of thermomechanical treatment on mechanical properties of ferromagnetic Fe–Ni–Co–Ti Alloy. In: Stebner A, Olson G (eds) Proceedings of the international conference on martensitic transformations: Chicago. The minerals, metals & materials series. Springer, Berlin, pp 115–120. ISBN: 978-3-319-76967-7.

  16. Titenko AN, Demchenko LD, Babanli MB, Sharai IV, Titenko Ya А (2019) Effect of thermomechanical treatment on deformational behavior of ferromagnetic Fe–Ni–Co–Ti alloy under uniaxial tension. Appl Nanosci.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This research was supported by the laboratories of the Institute of Magnetism, the National Technical University of Ukraine “Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”, and Azerbaijan State University of Oil and Industry.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to L. Demchenko.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Titenko, A., Demchenko, L., Babanli, M. et al. Inelasticity of nanocomposite based on ferromagnetic Fe–Ni–Co–Ti alloy after thermomechanical treatment. Appl Nanosci 10, 2797–2801 (2020).

Download citation


  • Ferromagnetic iron-based alloys
  • Nanocomposite
  • Mechanical stresses
  • Superelastic deformation
  • Shape memory effect
  • Thermomechanical treatment
  • Nanoparticles
  • Grain size