In the work, different types of zeolites were used for the development of enzyme-based electrochemical biosensors. Zeolites were added to the biorecognition elements of the biosensors and served as additional components of the biomembranes or adsorbents for enzymes. Three types of biosensors (conductometric, amperometric and potentiometric) were studied. The developed biosensors were compared with the similar biosensors without zeolites. The biosensors contained the following enzymes: urease, glucose oxidase, glutamate oxidase, and acetylcholinesterase and were intended for the detection of urea, glucose, glutamate, and acetylcholine, respectively. Construction of the biosensors using the adsorption of enzymes on zeolites has several advantages: simplicity, good reproducibility, quickness, absence of toxic compounds. These benefits are particularly important for the standardization and further mass production of the biosensors. Furthermore, a biosensor for the sucrose determination contained a three-enzyme system (invertase/mutatorase/glucose oxidase), immobilized by a combination of adsorption on silicalite and cross-linking via glutaraldehyde; such combined immobilization demonstrated better results as compared with adsorption or cross-linking separately. The analysis of urea and sucrose concentrations in the real samples was carried out. The results, obtained with biosensors, had high correlation with the results of traditional analytical methods, thus the developed biosensors are promising for practical applications.
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The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of this study by the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in the frame of Scientific and Technical Government Program “Sensor systems for medico-ecological and industrial-technological requirement: metrological support and experimental operation”.
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Conflict of interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
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