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Table 1 Mean values of heavy metal concentration (mg/l) of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in surface water/WHO permissible limits

From: Open cast mining: threat to water quality in rural community of Enyigba in south-eastern Nigeria

Sample location/WHO permissible limit Elevation (m) pH TDS T (°C) As (mg/l) Cd (mg/l) Cu (mg/l) Pb (mg/l) Zn (mg/l)
Abandoned pit 49.1 6.9 120 29 7.49 1.28 3.05 27.46
Active pit 58.7 5.5 40 29 0.02 4.77 4.77 0.07 27.46
Akpara Izzi stream 44.9 6.7 90 29 11.99 2.33 2.51 31.38
Nwerugvu pond 61.2 6.5 50 29 61.44 2.13 3.56 0.03 65.38
Ebonyi River 33.7 6.9 110 27 7.49 11.01 1.84 26.15
WHO permissible limit (2011)   6.5–8.5 500 <15 0.01 0.003 2.00 0.01 5.00
  1. TDS total dissolved solid, As arsenic, Cd cadmium, Cu copper, Pb lead, Zn zinc, T (°C) temperature in celsius, – traces (not detected)