Table 1 Physico-bio-chemical characteristics of water of River Ganga in Rishikesh

From: Assessment of water quality and suitability analysis of River Ganga in Rishikesh, India

Sample No. Temp. (°C) pH EC (μS/cm) TDS (mg/L) Salinity (o/oo) Alkalinity DO TH CO3 2− HCO ¯3
1 16.0 9.6 77.0 31.0 0.04 80.0 9.6 64.0 9.6 4.9
2 16.0 9.3 59.0 23.0 0.03 80.0 9.4 64.0 0.0 24.4
3 16.0 9.5 67.0 31.0 0.03 48.0 9.2 68.0 0.0 14.6
4 17.0 9.0 63.0 31.0 0.02 48.0 9.5 80.0 0.0 14.6
5 20.0 9.2 63.0 30.0 0.01 48.0 9.5 76.0 0.0 14.6
6 21.0 10.5 68.0 18.0 0.03 80.0 11.1 76.0 0.0 24.4
7 19.0 10.0 40.0 32.0 0.03 48.0 10.6 76.0 0.0 14.6
8 16.2 9.4 38.0 25.0 0.01 32.0 9.5 72.0 0.0 9.8
9 17.0 9.1 52.0 25.0 0.02 64.0 9.3 64.0 0.0 19.5
10 17.5 9.6 72.0 34.0 0.02 144.0 9.5 72.0 0.0 19.5
11 20.0 9.5 125.0 60.0 0.06 64.0 7.8 212.0 4.8 34.2
12 17.8 9.5 102.0 48.0 0.05 64.0 9.0 116.0 4.8 9.8
13 17.0 9.3 75.0 22.0 0.03 64.0 9.2 80.0 0.0 19.5
14 19.2 9.0 118.0 30.0 0.05 96.0 10.6 120.0 4.8 19.5
15 20.3 9.0 170.0 85.0 0.08 80.0 9.3 168.0 4.8 19.5
16 19.5 9.2 152.0 76.0 0.07 64.0 10.2 124.0 0.0 24.4
17 18.0 9.3 117.0 54.0 0.05 64.0 10.8 120.0 0.0 19.5
18 17.3 9.3 97.0 46.0 0.04 48.0 10.5 92.0 0.0 19.5
19 15.7 9.2 76.0 35.0 0.03 144.0 10.2 80.0 0.0 14.6
20 10.2 9.2 73.0 35.0 0.03 48.0 16.1 200.0 4.8 34.2
Range 10.2–21.0 9.0–10.5 38.0–170.0 18.0–85.0 0.01–0.08 32.0–144.0 7.8–16.1 64.0–212.0 0.0–9.6 4.9–34.2
Mean ± SD 17.5 ± 2.38 9.4 ± 0.36 85.2 ± 35.54 38.6 ± 17.94 0.04 ± 0.02 70.4 ± 29.55 10.0 ± 1.62 101.2 ± 44.86 1.7 ± 2.82 18.8 ± 7.31
Sample No. HCO ¯3 Cl F PO4 3− Na+ Mg2+ Ca2+ TOC BOD MPN
1 4.9 15.0 0.25 3.6 10.1 0.0 25.6 14.5 5.4 125
2 24.4 10.0 0.27 3.8 9.8 5.0 17.6 13.3 5.6 na*
3 14.6 12.5 0.33 4.5 9.8 5.0 19.2 16.4 5.5 na
4 14.6 15.0 0.27 4.5 9.7 8.5 18.4 12.8 4.6 na
5 14.6 20.0 0.25 3.7 9.8 7.0 19.2 12.7 4.4 na
6 24.4 17.5 0.28 3.8 9.7 7.0 19.2 12.4 4.3 na
7 14.6 15.0 0.26 4.2 9.8 6.5 20.0 16.7 6.8 450
8 9.8 20.0 0.29 4.5 9.8 6.0 19.2 13.2 5.4 na
9 19.5 20.0 0.27 4.5 9.8 3.0 20.8 15.0 6.5 na
10 19.5 27.5 0.27 4.3 10.1 6.5 18.4 13.9 5.5 na
11 34.2 25.0 0.24 4.2 10.2 22.0 49.6 51.2 11.5 na
12 9.8 25.0 0.27 4.2 9.7 10.5 29.6 26.7 14.6 na
13 19.5 32.5 0.35 3.8 10.4 7.5 20.0 15.9 12.4 3000
14 19.5 30.0 0.25 4.0 10.5 8.5 34.4 28.6 15.2 na
15 19.5 25.0 0.15 4.5 10.5 14.5 44.0 42.3 18.3 2500
16 24.4 32.5 0.22 4.8 10.4 11.5 31.2 67.0 19.3 na
17 19.5 27.5 0.22 4.8 10.4 13.0 27.2 43.9 15.6 1200
18 19.5 25.0 0.22 4.0 9.8 8.5 23.2 108.3 19.5 na
19 14.6 25.0 0.22 4.3 9.8 3.5 26.4 19.5 8.4 na
20 34.2 22.5 0.23 4.2 10.2 37.0 20.8 14.9 6.5 na
Range 4.9–34.2 10.0–32.5 0.15–0.35 3.6–4.8 9.7–10.5 0.0–37.0 17.6–49.6 12.4–108.3 4.3–19.5 125–3000
Mean ± SD 18.8 ± 7.31 22.1 ± 6.51 0.3 ± 0.04 4.2 ± 0.35 10.0 ± 0.33 6.6±8.0 25.2 ± 8.84 28.0 ± 24.41 9.8 ± 5.45 1455 ± 1257
  1. All the values expressed in mg/l except Temperature (oC), EC (μS/cm), salinity (o/oo), and MPN (No./100 ml); na Not Analysed